Program Profile

Impact of an Educational and Laboratory Stewardship Intervention on Inpatient COVID-19 Therapeutics at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center

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Background: Accurate and timely prescriptions of COVID-19 therapeutics, laboratory testing, and antimicrobial stewardship have been a challenge throughout the pandemic as new evidence emerges. While universal consultation with infectious disease specialists on patients admitted with COVID-19 is desirable, it is not always feasible due to limited resources.

Observations: In this single-center study, we implemented a combined educational and laboratory stewardship intervention geared toward hospitalist practitioners resulting in improved accuracy of remdesivir and dexamethasone prescriptions, reduced laboratory use of blood cultures, interleukin 6 assay, and Legionella sputum cultures, and a decrease in antibiotic use for patients with mild-to-moderate oxygen requirements over 6 months. These improvements were seen in tandem with decreased reliance on infectious disease consultation.

Conclusions: These efforts support proof of the principle of combined educational and laboratory stewardship interventions to improve the care of COVID-19 patients, especially where infectious disease consultation may not be available or is accessed remotely.



Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, health care professionals (HCPs), including emergency medicine physicians and hospitalists, have been continuously challenged to maintain an up-to-date clinical practice on COVID-19 therapeutics as new evidence emerged.1,2 In the early part of the pandemic, these included not only appropriate and time-sensitive prescriptions of COVID-19 therapeutics, such as remdesivir and dexamethasone, but also judicious use of empiric antibiotics given the low prevalence for bacterial coinfection in early disease.3-6 Alongside this, curbing the excessive laboratory testing of these patients during the pandemic was important not only to minimize costs but also to reduce potential iatrogenic harm and extended length of stay (LOS).7

At the beginning of the pandemic in March 2020 at the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) North Texas Health Care System (VANTHCS) Dallas VA Medical Center (DVAMC), we attempted to provide therapeutic guidance for physicians primarily through direct infectious disease (ID) consultation (in-person or electronic).8 This was secondarily supported by a pharmacist and ID physician–curated “living guidance” document on COVID-19 care accessible to all physicians through the DVAMC electronic health record (EHR) and intranet.

As the alpha variant (lineage B.1.1.7) of COVID-19 began spreading throughout North Texas in the winter of 2020, we implemented a targeted educational intervention toward the hospitalist group taking care of patients with COVID-19 with the primary goal of improving the accuracy of COVID-19 therapeutics while minimizing the consultative burden on ID clinical and pharmacy staff. This initiative consisted of (1) proactive guideline dissemination through email and text messages; (2) virtual didactics; and (3) physician reminders during the consultation process. Our ultimate aims were to improve hospitalist-led appropriate prescriptions of remdesivir and dexamethasone, reducing empiric antibiotic days of therapy in patients with COVID-19 at low risk of bacterial coinfection, and reducing laboratory orders that were not indicated for the management of these patients. Following this intervention and the resolution of the second wave, we retrospectively assessed the temporal trends of COVID-19 practices by hospitalists and associated patterns of ID consultation in the DVAMC from October 1, 2020, to March 31, 2021.


The educational intervention was carried out at the DVAMC, a 1A high complex facility with more than 200 inpatient beds and part of the VANTHCS. During the study period, patients admitted with COVID-19 were located either on a closed floor (managed by the hospitalist team) or in a closed intensive care unit (ICU) (managed by the pulmonary/critical care team) contingent on the level of care or oxygen supplementation required. ID and other subspecialties provided consultation services as requested by hospitalists or ICU teams either electronically or in person. During the study period, 66 hospitalists were involved in the care of the patients: 59 (89.5%) permanent staff, 4 (6.0%) fee-basis physicians, and 3 (4.5%) moonlighting fellows.


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