Therapeutic risk management emphasizes the necessity of assessing current and past suicidal ideation, intent, plan, and access to means. Moreover, additional considerations might be indicated when assessing and conceptualizing suicide risk among veterans with PTSD. Assessing lifetime trauma history, including traumas that occurred before, during, and after military service, is important for understanding whether traumatic experiences influence acute and chronic risks of suicide. As previously described, careful attention to stressful and traumatic experiences with violent and aggressive characteristics is recommended because research suggests that these experiences are associated with increased capability for suicide.5 Awareness of the diversity of traumatic experiences and the importance of contextual factors surrounding such experiences also are essential. For example, the nature of violence and proximity to violence (eg, directly involved in a firefight vs hearing a mortar explosion in the distance) are key components of military-related combat trauma that might differentially influence risk of suicide.10
Similarly, although military sexual trauma can include repeated threatening sexual harassment or sexual assault, research suggests that military sexual assault is particularly important for understanding suicidal ideation, and experiences of military sexual harassment are less important.11 Therefore, a careful and nuanced understanding of how contextual aspects of a veteran’s trauma history might relate to his or her chronic and acute risk of suicide is critical.
Also important is considering the individual and institutional reactions to trauma. For example, veterans whose behaviors during traumatic experiences violated their values and moral code (ie, moral injury) might be at increased risk for S-SDV. Similarly, veterans who believe that the military institution did not adequately protect them from or support them in the aftermath of traumatic experience(s) (ie, institutional betrayal) might be at higher risk of suicide.
During a clinical interview, mental health providers should pay attention to beliefs and behaviors the veteran is reporting. For example, endorsement of perceptions of low social support (eg, “no one likes me”) or self-esteem (eg, “I’m just not as good as I used to be”) might be indicative of TB or PB, respectively. Additionally, providers should be aware of current or lifetime exposure to painful stimuli (eg, nonsuicidal self-injury, such as cutting or burning, previous suicide attempts) because these exposures might increase the veteran’s acquired capability of future S-SDV.
Although unstructured clinical interviews are a common suicide risk assessment approach, TRM proposes that using a thorough clinical interview along with valid self-report measures could further illuminate a patient’s risk of suicide.9 Implementing brief measures allows mental health providers to quickly assess several risk factors and decrease the likelihood of missing important aspects of suicide risk assessment. Providers can use a number of measures to inform their suicide risk assessment, including augmenting a clinical interview of suicide risk with a valid self-report measure of recent suicidal ideation (eg, Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation, which assesses the severity of suicidal ideation in the past week).
Additionally for veterans with PTSD, mental health providers can include measures of PTSD symptoms (eg, PTSD checklist in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–5) and common PTSD comorbidities (eg, Beck Depression Inventory-II for depressive symptoms) that might contribute to current risk of suicide. Based on previous research, providers also might consider adding measures of trauma-related beliefs (eg, Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory) and emotions, such as guilt (eg, Trauma-Related Guilt Inventory).5
These measures could aid in identifying modifiable risk factors of suicide among veterans with PTSD, such as the extent to which certain beliefs or emotions relate to an individual’s risk of suicide. In addition to asking about characteristics of traumatic events during the clinical interview, measures of moral injury (eg, Moral Injury Events Scale) and institutional betrayal (eg, Institutional Betrayal Questionnaire) might further inform understanding of contextual aspects of trauma that could help explain an individual’s risk of suicide.
Finally, interpersonal measures also could be helpful. For example, because avoidance and social isolation are risk factors for suicidal ideation among veterans with PTSD, measures of perceived interpersonal functioning (eg, Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire) might add further data to assist in suicide risk conceptualization. Although the selection of specific measures likely varies based on the specific needs of an individual patient, these are examples of measures that can be used with veterans with PTSD to inform suicide risk assessment and conceptualization.
By combining data from various measures across multiple domains with a thorough clinical interview, mental health providers can use a TRM approach to understand and conceptualize suicide risk among veterans with PTSD. This approach can facilitate mental health providers’ ability to provide optimal care and guide intervention(s) for veterans with PTSD. One brief intervention that has been used with veterans is safety planning. During safety planning, the provider assists the veteran in identifying warning signs, internal and external coping strategies, and individuals the veteran can reach out to for help (eg, friends and family, providers, Veterans Crisis Line), in addition to collaboratively brainstorming ways the veteran can make his or her environment safer (eg, reducing access to lethal means, identifying reminders of their reasons for living).
Specific to veterans with PTSD, symptoms such as avoidance, hyperarousal, social isolation, and beliefs that others and the world are unsafe might affect safety planning. Such symptoms could hinder identification and use of coping strategies while deterring openness to reach out to others for help. A collaborative method can be used to identify alternate means of coping that take into account PTSD-related avoidance and hyperarousal (eg, rather than going to a crowded store or isolating at home, taking a walk in a quiet park with few people). Similarly, because substance use and risky behaviors are common among veterans with PTSD and might further increase risk of suicide, exploring healthy (eg, exercise) vs unhealthy (eg, substance use; unprotected sex) coping strategies could be helpful.
Further, based on their lived experience, veterans with PTSD could experience difficulty identifying a support system or be reluctant to reach out to others during acute crisis. This might be particularly daunting in the presence of PB and TB. In these situations, it is important to validate the veteran’s difficulty with reaching out while simultaneously encouraging the veteran to examine the accuracy of such beliefs and/or helping the veteran develop skills to overcome these obstacles.
The mental health provider also can work with the individual to ensure that the veteran understands that if he or she does engage emergency resources (eg, Veterans Crisis Line), information likely will be held confidential. Providers can tell their patients that breaks in confidentiality are rare and occur only in circumstances in which it is necessary to protect the veteran. In doing so, the provider facilitates the veteran’s understanding of the role of crisis resources and clarifies any misconceptions the veteran might have (eg, calling the crisis line will always result in hospitalization or police presence).