Better recognition of catatonia
As catatonia becomes better elucidated and more clearly described in the literature, there is increasing awareness that symptoms do not always involve stupor, mutism, and slowed motor activity, but can include increased motor activity, agitation, and stereotypies. The BFCRS is extremely useful for quantifying symptoms of catatonia. The best way to confirm the diagnosis is to use a lorazepam challenge in an inpatient setting, or a trial of lorazepam in an outpatient setting.5
The authors’ observations
Lorazepam is often considered the first-line treatment for catatonia because it is one of the most widely studied medications. Other benzodiazepines, such as oxazepam and clonazepam, and the sedative/hypnotic zolpidem have also been shown to be effective. Antipsychotics with dopamine-blocking mechanisms can exacerbate symptoms of catatonia and should be avoided in these patients. Furthermore, in cases of refractory catatonia, bilateral electroconvulsive therapy is an important and necessary treatment.7
TREATMENT Pharmacologic agents decrease BFCRS score
Mr. S is prescribed a regimen of lorazepam, 2 mg by mouth daily, and the supplement N-acetylcysteine, 600 mg by mouth daily. Within 2 weeks of starting this regimen, Mr. S’s BFCRS score decreases from 26 to 14. After 6 months of treatment with lorazepam, Mr. S shows considerable improvement. The stereotypic behaviors and impulsivity decrease significantly, leading to improved sleep and performance in school. After 6 months Mr. S is successfully tapered off the lorazepam, with a complete return to baseline.
Hyperkinetic catatonia is easily overlooked, especially in the emergency setting. Catatonia should always be ruled out, particularly in patients with underlying conditions associated with it. Hyperkinetic catatonia is an underrecognized comorbidity in patients with autism.
- Dhossche DM, Wing L, Ohta M, et al. International Review of Neurobiology: Catatonia in autism spectrum disorders, vol 72. New York, NY: Academic Press/Elsevier; 2006.
- Taylor MA, Fink M. Catatonia in psychiatric classification: a home of its own. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160(7):1233-1241.
Drug Brand Names
Amantadine • Symmetrel
Bromocriptine • Parlodel
Clonazepam • Klonopin
Lorazepam • Ativan
Memantine • Namenda
Oxazepam • Serax
Quetiapine • Seroquel
Valproic acid • Depakene, Depakote
Zolpidem • Ambien