CASE Aggressive, impulsive, and not sleeping
Mr. S, age 22, is brought by his family to his outpatient psychiatrist because he has begun to exhibit motor and verbal tics, excessive adherence to rules and routines, and increased impulsivity and agitation.
Mr. S has significant language impairment and is unreliable as a narrator. His family reports that Mr. S’s behavior has resulted in declining academic performance, and they have curtailed his social activities due to behavioral issues. Both his family and teachers report that it is increasingly difficult to redirect Mr. S’s behavior. Although not physically aggressive, Mr. S becomes verbally agitated when rituals are incomplete. He has gone from sleeping 8 hours each night to only 3 to 4 hours, but he does not appear tired during the day.
HISTORY Multiple hospitalizations
As a child, Mr. S had been diagnosed with autism and intellectual disability. When he was 13, he began exhibiting marked stereotypy, restlessness, impulsivity, frenzy, agitation, combativeness, and purposeless motor activity. At that time, he was not receiving any medications. Mr. S had not slept for 2 days and had been walking in circles nonstop. He became aggressive whenever anyone attempted to redirect his behavior. The family took Mr. S to the emergency department (ED), where clinicians ruled out organic causes for his behavioral disturbances, including infections, drug intoxication, and use of illicit substances. Mr. S was transferred from the ED to a child and adolescent psychiatry ward at a nearby university hospital for inpatient treatment.
On the inpatient unit, the treatment team diagnosed Mr. S with bipolar disorder and believed that he was experiencing a manic episode. He was prescribed quetiapine, 25 mg by mouth during the day and 75 mg by mouth at night, to stabilize his agitation, and was discharged with a plan to follow up with his outpatient psychiatrist. However, within 1 week, his symptoms returned, with markedly increased aggression and agitation, so he was readmitted, tapered off quetiapine, and prescribed valproic acid, 125 mg by mouth during the day and 375 mg by mouth at bedtime. With this regimen, Mr. S became calmer, but when he was discharged home, he was subdued and withdrawn, overly adherent to rules and routines, constantly irritable, and often unable to focus.
Two years later, Mr. S developed hyperammonemia. Valproic acid was discontinued, and many of his behavioral issues resolved. He flourished both academically and socially. He experienced no exacerbation of symptoms until his current presentation.
EVALUATION Pinpointing the cause
Mr. S’s physical examination reveals that his vital signs are within normal limits. Mr. S is mildly tachycardic (heart rate, 105 bpm), with regular rate and rhythm. No murmurs, gallops, or rubs are auscultated. The remainder of the physical exam, including a detailed neurologic exam, is normal.
On mental status examination, Mr. S makes limited eye contact. He has difficulty sitting in the chair, with increased rocking, finger flicking, and hand flapping from baseline. Some compulsive behaviors are noted, such as tapping his neck. He has increased tics (eye blinking and mouth opening) and increased verbigeration and repetitive verbal statements. He loudly and repeatedly demands to go home, and uses short sentences with incorrect pronouns. His affect is difficult to assess, but he is agitated. His thought process is concrete. There is no evidence of suicidal ideation, homicidal ideation, or psychosis. Mr. S denies auditory hallucinations. His insight and judgment are limited.
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