Underlying causes of catatonia
Catatonia is most often seen in individuals with an underlying psychiatric condition such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, or autism. However, catatonia also occurs in the context of general neurologic and medical disorders, including (but not limited to) infections, metabolic disorders, endocrinopathies, epilepsy, neurodegenerative diseases, delirium, hypertensive encephalopathy, autoimmune encephalitis, and liver and kidney transplantation.3
Subtypes of catatonia include4:
- hypokinetic catatonia, which presents as stupor, mutism, and negativism
- hyperkinetic catatonia, which presents as hyperactivity, agitation, and stereotypy (as observed in Mr. S)
- malignant catatonia, which is a potentially lethal form of catatonia that occurs when hypo- or hyperkinetic catatonia is accompanied by autonomic instability such as tachycardia, tachypnea, hypertension, fever, and muscle rigidity
- periodic catatonia, which is characterized by brief episodes of stupor or excitatory catatonia lasting 4 to 10 days. These episodes recur over weeks to years, with patients remaining asymptomatic between episodes, or showing mild symptoms, such as facial grimacing or negativisms. Periodic catatonia often is autosomal dominant, involves linkage for the long arm of chromosome 15, and has a better prognosis than the other forms.
Autism and catatonia
Most individuals with autism who experience a catatonic episode first do so between age 10 and 19, and many episodes are precipitated by sudden changes in routine resulting in stress.5 An estimated 12% to 18% of patients with autism are diagnosed with catatonia in their lifetime, but the actual prevalence is likely higher.4
One of the reasons for this might be that although catatonia is well known in the psychiatric community, it is relatively unknown in the general medical community. Children and adolescents with psychiatric illness are likely to have symptoms of catatonia overlooked because catatonia often is not included in the differential diagnosis.6
In Mr. S’s case, it became clear that he did not have a mood disorder, but was prone to episodes of hyperkinetic catatonia due to his autism.
Continue to: Better recognition of catatonia