Cultural attitudes to puberty
Cultures vary with respect to education of sensitive topics such as puberty. The medical providers assumed that Ms. S was informed about the onset of menses. Therefore, they could not consider the strong impact of such an event on an unsuspecting adolescent. Many adolescent girls in Yemen have poor health and lack menstruation-related knowledge, and many are “prescribed” medications by their mothers without contacting a physician.5 Ms. S reported to the C-L team that no one from her family had discussed menstruation with her. She reported that since arriving at the hospital, nurses had educated her about menstruation, and that she was no longer afraid. She also noted that if she experienced such pain again, she would go to the hospital or “just deal with it.”
Family identification and attitudes toward mental health
Ms. S’s strong identification with her family and attitudes toward mental health may have limited what she chose to disclose regarding her experiences of loss related to leaving her country of origin, adjustment, and acculturation to the new environment, as well as feelings of sadness. Family has a central and critical role in Arab cultures. Commitment to a family’s well-being and enhancement of honor and status is highly valued and encouraged.4 Conversely, being concerned with individual needs may be a source of guilt and feelings of betraying the family.6 Arab Americans tend not to discuss personal problems with people outside their extended family, including counselors and therapists, partly because of cultural stigma against mental illness7,8 and partly because revealing family problems to strangers (ie, clinicians) may be considered a cultural taboo9 and a threat to family honor.10 Although Ms. S was interviewed privately when she first came to the ED and also during the psychiatric consultation, the stigma of psychiatric problems11 and possible concerns about protecting her family’s name may have influenced her readiness to reveal intimate information to “strangers.”
Additionally, family statements that appeared to imply negative beliefs about mental health would have strongly deterred Ms. S from expressing any psychological concerns. For example, Ms. S’s brother took offense when the C-L team said it was evaluating his sister because she had said she had previously attempted suicide.
The tenets of Islam may have provided a framework through which Ms. S interprets emotional concerns and may have defined her explanatory models of psychological stress. For instance, it is not uncommon among American Muslims to view mental health problems as rising from “loss of faith in God,”9 and suicidal ideation may not be disclosed because suicide is forbidden in Islam.12 Therefore, it might be particularly difficult to assess suicidal ideation in a patient who is Muslim, especially those who are less acculturated to Western culture.13
Continue to: Directly asking Ms. S...