The authors’ observation
The C-L team determined that Ms. S did not meet criteria for major depressive disorder. She did not endorse current feelings of depression and denied anhedonia and other associated symptoms included in DSM-5 criteria for major depressive disorder or adjustment disorder with depressed mood (Table 11). Ms. S also denied having a history of depressive episodes or previous suicidal ideation, intention, or attempt, despite having said during the initial evaluation that she had a previous suicide attempt.
Although Ms. S and her family recently emigrated from Yemen, she did not report any symptoms consistent with an adjustment disorder with depression. Further, because she denied having any anxiety, worry, or stress related to her life in Yemen, her move to the United States, her parents’ health, school, or any other domains, she did not meet criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder (Table 21), or an anxiety disorder. Similarly, there was no evidence of a substance use disorder.
Accurate case conceptualization and diagnosis is particularly crucial in C-L services, where there is an urgency for clinical decision-making after an initial evaluation without the luxury of amending conceptualization in follow-up sessions. Providing a diagnosis for which a patient does not fully or accurately meet the criteria can have deleterious effects. An inaccurate diagnosis for Ms. S would have unnecessarily added the perceived stigma of a mental disorder to her medical record. Additionally, misdiagnosing or pathologizing a natural process of acculturation could have led to inappropriate or even harmful treatment.
The C-L team evaluated alternative explanations for Ms. S’s statements that suggested she was suicidal. First, they considered her mental status at the time she presented to the ED. An overdose of opioids alters mental status. Complicating reversal of opioid overdose is that some opioids have longer half-lives than naloxone, an opioid antagonist, so the individual can become reintoxicated. Similarly, some opioids are more potent and difficult to reverse.2 An altered mental status may have limited Ms. S’s ability to comprehend and answer questions accurately when she first presented to the ED.
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