CSF Predicts Progression of MS
CSF can predict the future progression of multiple sclerosis (MS), according to a study published online ahead of print May 9 in the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. CSF and peripheral blood were obtained from patients with clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting MS, primary progressive MS, or other inflammatory or noninflammatory neurologic diseases who underwent elective diagnostic lumbar puncture. Patients without MS served as controls. CSF samples were analyzed for free and immunoglobulin-associated light chains on B cells and plasmablasts. Clinical follow-up duration was five years. There was an increased median CSF κ:λ free light chain in all groups except controls. This ratio predicted Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score progression at five years. Median EDSS score was lower among patients with high CSF κ:λ free light chain.
Rathbone E, Durant L, Kinsella J, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin light chain ratios predict disease progression in multiple sclerosis.. 2018 May 9 [Epub ahead of print].
First Anti-CGRP Monoclonal Antibody Gains FDA Approval
The FDA approved Aimovig (erenumab-aooe) for the preventive treatment of migraine in adults. Aimovig is the first FDA-approved preventive migraine treatment in a new class of drugs that blocks the activity of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). The treatment is given by once-monthly self-injections. Aimovig’s effectiveness was evaluated in three placebo-controlled clinical trials. The first included 955 patients with episodic migraine. Over six months, treated patients had, on average, one to two fewer monthly migraine days than controls. The second study included 577 patients with episodic migraine. Over three months, treated patients had, on average, one fewer migraine day per month than controls. The third study evaluated 667 patients with chronic migraine. Over three months, treated patients had, on average, 2.5 fewer monthly migraine days than controls. Aimovig is marketed by Amgen.
APOE Plays a Greater Role in Women Than in Men
There is a stronger association between APOE-ε4 and CSF tau levels among women than among men, according to a study published online ahead of print May 7 in JAMA Neurology. Investigators selected data from 10 longitudinal cohort studies of normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Biomarker analyses included CSF levels of β-amyloid 42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau. Of the 1,798 patients in the CSF biomarker cohort, 862 were women, 226 had Alzheimer’s disease, 1,690 were white, and the mean age was 70. Of the 5,109 patients in the autopsy cohort, 2,813 were women, 4,953 were white, and the mean age was 84. After correcting for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni procedure, investigators observed a statistically significant interaction between APOE-ε4 and sex on CSF total tau and phosphorylated tau.
Hohman TJ, Dumitrescu L, Barnes LL. Sex-specific association of apolipoprotein E with cerebrospinal fluid levels of tau.. 2018 May 7 [Epub ahead of print].