Statin Prescription Varies in Stroke Belt
Less than half of patients with stroke discharged from the hospital receive a prescription for statins, and the likelihood of a prescription varies by patients’ location, sex, age, and race, according to a study published August 2 in the Journal of the American Heart Association. Researchers analyzed discharge medications for 323 participants hospitalized for an ischemic stroke during follow-up of the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study. In the Stroke Belt, participants ages 65 and older were 47% less likely to be discharged on a statin, compared with people younger than 65. Compared with women, men in the Stroke Belt were 31% less likely to be discharged on a statin, while men outside the Stroke Belt were more likely to be discharged on a statin.
Albright KC, Howard VJ, Howard G, et al. Age and sex disparities in discharge statin prescribing in the stroke belt: evidence from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017;6(8).
Midlife Vascular Risk Factors Increase Risk of Dementia
Midlife vascular risk factors are associated with increased risk of dementia in blacks and whites, according to a study published online ahead of print August 7 in JAMA Neurology. In the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, investigators measured demographic and vascular risk factors at baseline (ie, obesity, smoking, diabetes, prehypertension, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia), along with the presence of the APOE ε4 genotype. After the baseline visit, participants had four additional in-person visits. In all, 1,516 cases of dementia (57.0% female and 34.9% black, with a mean age at visit 1 of 57.4) were identified among 15,744 participants. Black race, older age, lower educational attainment, and APOE ε4 genotype were associated with increased risk of dementia, as were midlife smoking, diabetes, prehypertension, and hypertension.
Gottesman RF, Albert MS, Alonso A, et al. Associations between midlife vascular risk factors and 25-year incident dementia in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Cohort. JAMA Neurol. 2017 August 7 [Epub ahead of print].
Resistance Training May Slow the Progression of MS
Progressive resistance training may have a neuroprotective or neuroregenerative effect in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), according to a study published online ahead of print July 1 in Multiple Sclerosis Journal. This study was a 24-week randomized controlled crossover trial. Participants were assigned to training or to a wait list. Assessments included disability measures and MRI. The MS Functional Composite score improved in the training group, but disability, lesion load, and global brain volumes did not differ between groups. The researchers noted higher absolute cortical thickness values in 19 of 74 investigated cortical regions after progressive resistance training. Observed changes were confirmed and reproduced when comparing relative cortical thickness changes between groups in the anterior cingulate gyrus, temporal pole, orbital sulcus, and inferior temporal sulcus.
Kjølhede T, Siemonsen S, Wenzel D, et al. Can resistance training impact MRI outcomes in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis? Mult Scler. 2017 Jul 1 [Epub ahead of print].
Noninvasive Device Measures Intracranial Pressure
A noninvasive device measures intracranial pressure (ICP) accurately, according to research published online ahead of print August 8 in the Journal of Neurosurgery. In patients with traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage who were undergoing treatment in a neurocritical intensive care unit, researchers recorded ICP using the gold-standard method of invasive external ventricular drainage or intraparenchymal monitoring. In addition, the authors simultaneously measured ICP noninvasively with a device that uses advanced signal-analysis algorithms for acoustic signals propagating through the cranium. Data were collected in 14 patients, yielding 2,543 data points of continuous parallel ICP values. For measurements at the ≥ 17-mm Hg cutoff, the sensitivity and specificity of the noninvasive device were 0.7541 and 0.8887, respectively. ICP values obtained using noninvasive and invasive monitoring methods correlated well.
Ganslandt O, Mourtzoukos S, Stadlbauer A, et al. Evaluation of a novel noninvasive ICP monitoring device in patients undergoing invasive ICP monitoring: preliminary results. J Neurosurg. 2017 Aug 8 [Epub ahead of print].
Strokes Decline Among Men, But Not Women
The rate of stroke in the US has declined among men, but not among women, according to a study published online ahead of print August 9 in Neurology. Researchers collected data on 1.3 million adults in Ohio and Kentucky between 1993 and 2010. They used medical records to identify first-ever strokes during four one-year periods. The researchers observed 7,710 incident strokes in the four periods, and 57% of them were among women. The incidence of all strokes decreased over time in men (263 to 192), but not in women (217 to 198). The researchers found a similar sex difference in the change in the rate of ischemic stroke (ie, a decline from 238 to 165 among men, and a change from 193 to 173 among women).
Madsen TE, Khoury J, Alwell K, et al. Sex-specific stroke incidence over time in the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study. Neurology. 2017 Aug 9 [Epub ahead of print].
Link Between Alcohol Intake and Cognitively Healthy Longevity
Older adults who consume alcohol moderately on a regular basis are more likely to live to age 85 without dementia or other cognitive impairments than nondrinkers, according to a study published in the August issue of the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. Researchers examined 1,344 older community-dwelling adults and assessed alcohol intake by questionnaire in 1984–1987. They evaluated cognitive function in approximately four-year intervals between 1988 and 2009. About 49% of participants reported moderate alcohol intake, and 48% reported drinking almost daily. Relative to nondrinkers, moderate and heavy drinkers had significantly higher adjusted odds of survival to age 85 without cognitive impairment. Near-daily drinkers had two- to threefold higher adjusted odds of cognitively healthy longevity versus living to at least age 85 with cognitive impairment or death before age 85.
Richard EL, Kritz-Silverstein D, Laughlin GA, et al. Alcohol intake and cognitively healthy longevity in community-dwelling adults: The Rancho Bernardo Study. J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;59(3):803-814.
MRI Shows Brain Differences in Genetic Autism
In two genetically related cohorts at high risk for autism, reciprocal neuroanatomic abnormalities were associated with cognitive and behavioral impairments, according to a study published online ahead of print August 8 in Radiology. Researchers performed MRI on 79 carriers of a deletion at 16p11.2, 79 carriers of a duplication at 16p11.2, 64 unaffected family members, and 109 controls. The participants completed cognitive and behavioral tests, and neuroradiologists reviewed the images for development-related abnormalities. The researchers found differences in the brain structures of deletion and duplication carriers, compared with noncarriers. Deletion carriers had brain overgrowth, and duplication carriers had brain undergrowth. When investigators compared cognitive assessments to imaging findings, they found that any imaging feature associated with the deletion carriers indicated worse daily living, communication, and social skills.
Owen JP, Bukshpun P, Pojman N, et al. Brain MR imaging findings and associated outcomes in carriers of the reciprocal copy number variation at 16p11.2. Radiology. 2017 Aug 8 [Epub ahead of print].
FDA Clears Stimpod NMS460 for Relief of Chronic Pain
The FDA has cleared Stimpod NMS460, a noninvasive neuromodulation device, for the symptomatic relief and management of chronic intractable pain. The unit also can be used for the adjunctive treatment of postsurgical pain, posttraumatic acute pain, and pain control due to rehabilitation. The device has a pulsed radio frequency waveform that creates electromagnetic effects similar to those of invasive pulsed radio frequency treatments. Treatment is applied transcutaneously. Case studies have shown quick and notable relief of chronic intractable pain. The treatment has no known side effects. The Stimpod NMS460 also incorporates nerve-locating technology that includes a nerve-mapping probe that enables practitioners to evaluate the treatment progress of damaged nerves. Xavant Technology, which markets Stimpod NMS460, is headquartered in Pretoria, South Africa.
Longer Sleep Is Associated With Lower BMI
Adults who have poor sleep patterns are more likely to be overweight or obese and have poorer metabolic health, according to a study published July 27 in PLoS One. Researchers analyzed associations between sleep duration and adiposity, selected metabolic health markers, and diet using National Diet and Nutrition Survey data. In all, 1,615 adults (57.1% female) between ages 19 and 65 completed questions about sleep duration and three to four days of food diaries. Investigators recorded blood pressure and waist circumference. Fasting blood lipids, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, thyroid hormones, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured in a subset of participants. After adjusting for age, ethnicity, sex, smoking, and socioeconomic status, sleep duration was negatively associated with BMI and waist circumference. Sleep duration was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Potter GDM, Cade JE, Hardie LJ. Longer sleep is associated with lower BMI and favorable metabolic profiles in UK adults: findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. PLoS One. 2017; 12(7):e0182195.
Can Bleeding Risk After Stroke Be Predicted?
The S2TOP-BLEED score can estimate three-year major bleeding risk in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke who use antiplatelet agents, according to a study published online ahead of print August 2 in Neurology. To develop this prediction model, researchers combined data from six trials investigating antiplatelet therapy after TIA or ischemic stroke. They performed Cox regression analyses stratified by trial to study the association between predictors and major bleeding. Major bleeding occurred in 1,530 of the 43,112 patients during 94,833 person-years of follow-up. The observed three-year risk of major bleeding was 4.6%. The investigators identified male sex, smoking, type of antiplatelet agents, outcome on modified Rankin Scale ≥ 3, prior stroke, high blood pressure, lower BMI, elderly status, Asian ethnicity, and diabetes as predictors of major bleeding.
Hilkens NA, Algra A, Diener HC, et al. Predicting major bleeding in patients with noncardioembolic stroke on antiplatelets: S2TOP-BLEED. Neurology. 2017 Aug 2 [Epub ahead of print].
Questionnaires Predict Survival in MS
The way patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) answer questionnaires could help to predict their survival rate from the disease, according to a study published July 10 in PLoS Medicine. From July 15, 2004, onward, 2,126 people with MS completed MS Impact Scale-29 (MSIS-29) questionnaires. By 2014, 264 participants had died. Higher baseline MSIS-29 physical score and higher baseline MSIS-29 psychologic score were associated with reduced survival time. In participants with high baseline MSIS-29 scores, mortality risk was greater if the MSIS-29 score worsened over one year. MSIS-29 physical scores were associated with survival time, independent of age, sex, and patient-reported Expanded Disability Status Scale score in a Cox regression analysis.
Raffel J, Wallace A, Gveric D, et al. Patient-reported outcomes and survival in multiple sclerosis: a 10-year retrospective cohort study using the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale-29. PLoS Med. 2017;14(7):e1002346.