The high figures are concerning from a public health perspective and highlight the need to implement strategies for preventing eating disorders.
These disorders include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorder–not otherwise specified. The prevalence of these disorders in young people has markedly increased globally over the past 50 years. Eating disorders are among the most life-threatening mental disorders; they were responsible for 318 deaths worldwide in 2019.
Because some individuals with eating disorders conceal core symptoms and avoid or delay seeking specialist care because of feelings of embarrassment, stigma, or ambivalence toward treatment, most cases of eating disorders remain undetected and untreated.
Brazilian researchers conducted studies to assess risky behaviors and predisposing factors among young people. The researchers observed that the probability of experiencing eating disorders was higher among young people who had an intense fear of gaining weight, who experienced thin-ideal internalization, who were excessively concerned about food, who experienced compulsive eating episodes, or who used laxatives. As previously reported, most participants in these studies had never sought professional help.
A study conducted in 2020 concluded that the media greatly influences the construction of one’s body image and the creation of aesthetic standards, particularly for adolescents. Adolescents then change their eating patterns and become more vulnerable to mental disorders related to eating.
A group of researchers from several countries, including Brazilians connected to the State University of Londrina, conducted the Global Proportion of Disordered Eating in Children and Adolescents – A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. The study was coordinated by José Francisco López-Gil, PhD, of the University of Castilla–La Mancha (Spain). The investigators determined the rate of disordered eating among children and adolescents using the SCOFF (Sick, Control, One, Fat, Food) questionnaire, which is the most widely used screening measure for eating disorders.
Methods and results
Four databases were systematically searched (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library); date limits were from January 1999 to November 2022. Studies were required to meet the following criteria: participants – studies of community samples of children and adolescents aged 6-18 years – and outcome – disordered eating assessed by the SCOFF questionnaire. The exclusion criteria were studies conducted with young people who had been diagnosed with physical or mental disorders; studies that were published before 1999, because the SCOFF questionnaire was designed in that year; studies in which data were collected during the COVID-19 pandemic, because of the possibility of selection bias; studies that employed data from the same surveys/studies, to avoid duplication; and systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses and qualitative and case studies.
In all, 32 studies, which involved a total of 63,181 participants from 16 countries, were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. The overall proportion of children and adolescents with disordered eating was 22.36% (95% confidence interval, 18.84%-26.09%; P < .001; n = 63,181). According to the researchers, girls were significantly more likely to report disordered eating (30.03%; 95% CI, 25.61%-34.65%; n = 27,548) than boys (16.98%; 95% CI, 13.46%-20.81%; n = 26,170; P < .001). It was also observed that disordered eating became more elevated with increasing age (B, 0.03; 95% CI, 0-0.06; P = .049) and BMI (B, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.01-0.05; P < .001).