Best Practices

A Primary Care Provider’s Guide to Cataract Surgery in the Very Elderly

Planning for cataract surgery and perioperative care in the very elderly requires the teamwork of the patient’s primary care provider and the ophthalmologist.

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Cataract surgery is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the US, including within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA).1,2 As the risk of surgical complications has decreased with improved techniques and instrumentation, the threshold for performing surgery has lowered.3 A substantial number of patients do not develop clinically significant cataracts until they are “very elderly,” defined as aged ≥ 85 years by the World Health Organization and National Institute of Aging.4

Should the general approach to cataract evaluation and surgery differ in this subset of patients? Advanced age is associated with a variety of systemic and ocular comorbidities that theoretically increase the risk of cataract surgery and reduce the potential visual benefit it might yield. However, the impact of age on the outcomes of cataract surgery differs even among the very elderly. There are no universally acknowledged guidelines that address the perioperative evaluation and management of cataracts in the very elderly, whose systemic and ocular health have greater variability than those of their younger counterparts. For very elderly patients who are found to have visually significant cataracts by their ophthalmologists, input from the primary care provider (PCP), who has insight into a patient’s health and well-being, is vital for formulating a management plan. Herein, we provide a framework for PCPs to assist very elderly patients and their ophthalmologists in making an informed decision regarding cataract surgery and in planning for perioperative care.

Cataract Surgery

Cataract surgeons recommend surgical extraction when there is a clinically significant lens opacity that imposes functional impairment, such as inability to read, perform near work, watch television, or drive.4 The standard of care for a clinically significant cataract is surgical removal of the crystalline lens and replacement with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL). At times, the onset of vision loss from a cataract is insidious such that patients may not be aware of their declining vision or the deterioration in quality of life (QOL) that it causes.

Despite the higher burden of ocular comorbidity (eg, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma) relative to their younger counterparts, most very elderly patients obtain functionally important improvement in their vision, QOL, and cognitive function after surgery.5-16 Cataract surgery can also reduce the risk of dementia and the risk of falls and hip fractures.6,9,12-14,16-18 Ophthalmic complications of cataract surgery in the very elderly include posterior capsule tear (< 1%-9%), vitreous loss (< 1%-8%), zonular rupture (2%-5%), and retained lens fragments (≤ 1%).5,8-11,17,19-21 There is no evidence from well-controlled studies that suggests that very elderly cataract surgery patients are at higher risk of ocular complications relative to that of their younger counterparts.22

Surgery Alternatives

In some very elderly patients, cataract surgery may not be the best option, and PCPs can aid in establishing an alternative plan. Such patients include those with a limited life expectancy, incapacitating anxiety over surgery, or those in whom the potential for visual improvement is marginal because of ocular or systemic comorbidities—eg, vision-limiting glaucoma or age-related macular degeneration, history of stroke to the visual pathway, or restriction to bed. Alternatives to cataract surgery in these instances include changing environmental conditions to improve visual function, such as enhanced lighting and contrast, and/or use of low-vision aids (referring patients to low-vision professionals often improves QOL).23 Low-vision specialists also have a variety of nonvisual aids that can expand functional capabilities: large-print and talking versions of reading materials, telephones, remote controls, clocks, scales, calculators, and glucose monitors; glare-free lights for stairs, floors, and counters; and specialty glasses that use light-emitting diode screens and live video streams to magnify sight.23-25

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