Advances in Geriatrics

A Pharmacist-Led Transitional Care Program to Reduce Hospital Readmissions in Older Adults

Medication reconciliation and patient education during admission and after discharge helped older patients remain independent at home.

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There will be 53 million older adults in the US by 2020.1 Increasing age often brings medical comorbidities and prescriptions for multiple medications. An increasing number of prescribed medications combined with age-related changes in the ability to metabolize drugs makes older adults highly vulnerable to adverse drug events (ADEs).2 In addition, older adults often have difficulty self-managing their medications and adhering to prescribed regimens.3 As a result, ADEs can lead to poor health outcomes, including hospitalizations, in older adults.

Medication errors and ADEs are particularly common during transitions from hospital to home and can lead to unnecessary readmissions,a major cause of wasteful health care spending in the US.4,5 More than $25 billion are estimated to be spent annually on hospital readmissions, with Medicare picking up the bill for $17 billion of the total.6,7 Researchers have found that the majority of ADEs following hospital discharge are either entirely preventable or at least ameliorable (ie, the negative impact or harm resulting from the ADE could have been reduced).8

To address these issues, we undertook a clinical demonstration project that implemented a new transitional care program to improve the quality of care for older veterans transitioning from the Audie L. Murphy Veterans Memorial Hospital of the South Texas Veterans Health Care System (STVHCS) in San Antonio to home. The Geriatrics Medication Education at Discharge project (GMED) falls under the auspices of the San Antonio Geriatrics Research Education and Clinical Center (GRECC). Clinical demonstration projects are mandated for US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) GRECCs to create and promote innovative models of care for older veterans. Dissemination of successful clinical demonstration projects to other VA sites is strongly encouraged. The GMED program was modeled after the Boston GRECC Pharmacological Intervention in Late Life (PILL) program.9 The PILL program, which focuses on serving older veterans with cognitive impairment, demonstrated that a postdischarge pharmacist telephone visit for medication reconciliation leads to a reduction in readmission within 60 days of discharge.9 The goals of the GMED program were to reduce polypharmacy, inappropriate prescribing and 30-day readmissions.

Methods

The project was conducted when a full-time clinical pharmacy specialist (CPS) was available (May-September 2013 and April 2014-March 2015). This project was approved as nonresearch/quality improvement by the University of Texas Health Science Center Institutional Review Board, which serves the STVHCS. Consent was not required.

Eligibility

Patients were identified via a daily hospital database query of all adults aged ≥ 65 years admitted to the hospital through Inpatient Medicine, Neurology, or Cardiology services within the prior 24 hours. Patients meeting any of the following criteria based on review of the Computerized Patient Record System (CPRS) by the team geriatrician and CPS were considered eligible: (1) aged ≥ 70 years prescribed ≥ 12 outpatient medications; (2) aged ≥ 65 years with a medical history of dementia; (3) aged ≥ 65 years prescribed outpatient medications meeting Beers criteria10; (4) age ≥ 65 years with ≥ 2 hospital admissions (including the current, index admission) within the past calendar year; or (5) aged ≥ 65 years with ≥ 3 emergency department visits within the past calendar year. For the first polypharmacy criterion, patients aged ≥ 70 years were selected instead of aged ≥ 65 years so as not to exceed the capacity of 1 CPS. Twelve or more medications were used as a cutoff for polypharmacy based on prior quality improvement information gathered from our VA geriatrics clinic examining the average number of medications taken by older veterans in the outpatient setting.

Related: Reducing COPD Readmission Rates: Using a COPD Care Service During Care Transitions

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