Although underutilization of pharmacotherapy is a pitfall to be avoided in the treatment of patients with dual disorders, medication overutilization can be just as problematic. Patients with dual disorders are sometimes singularly focused on resolving acute anxiety, depression, or psychosis at the expense of working towards sobriety.33 Although the “self-medication hypothesis” is frequently invoked by patients and clinicians alike to suggest that substance use occurs in the service of “treating” underlying disorders,34 this theory has not been well supported in studies.35-37 Some patients may pledge dedication to abstinence, but still pressure physicians for a pharmacologic solution to their suffering. With expanding legalization of cannabis for both recreational and medical purposes, patients are increasingly seeking doctors’ recommendations for “medical marijuana” for a wide range of complaints, despite the fact that data supporting a therapeutic role for cannabis in the treatment of mental illness is sparse,38 whereas the potential harm in terms of either causing or worsening psychosis is well established.39,40 Clinicians must be knowledgeable about the abuse potential of prescribed medications, ranging from sleep aids, analgesics, and muscle relaxants to antidepressants and antipsychotics, while also being mindful of the psychological meaningfulness of seeking, prescribing, and not prescribing medications.41
Although the simultaneous treatment of patients with dual disorders that includes pharmacotherapy for both SUDs and CODs is vital for optimizing clinical outcomes, clinicians should strive for diagnostic accuracy and use medications judiciously. In addition, although pharmacotherapy often is necessary to deliver evidence-based treatment for patients with dual disorders, it is inadequate as standalone treatment and should be administered along with psychosocial interventions within an integrated, multidisciplinary treatment setting.
The keys to optimal outcomes
The treatment of patients with dual disorders can be challenging, to say the least. Ideal, evidence-based therapy in the form of an IDDT program can be difficult for clinicians to implement and for patients to access. Best efforts to perform meticulous clinical assessment to clarify diagnoses, use pharmacotherapy judiciously, work collaboratively in a multidisciplinary setting, and optimize treatment given available resources are keys to clinical success.
Ideal treatment of patients with dual disorders consists of simultaneous, integrated interventions delivered by a multidisciplinary team. However, in the real world, limited resources, diagnostic challenges, and both over- and underutilization of pharmacotherapy often hamper optimal treatment.
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Co-occurring disorders. https://www.samhsa.gov/disorders/co-occurring.
- National Alliance on Mental Illness. Dual diagnosis. https://www.nami.org/Learn-More/Mental-Health-Conditions/Related-Conditions/Dual-Diagnosis.
- Foundations Recovery Network. Dual diagnosis support groups. http://www.dualdiagnosis.org/resource/ddrn/self-helpsupport-groups/support-groups.
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Integrated treatment for co-occurring disorders evidence-based practices (EBP) KIT. https://store.samhsa.gov/product/Integrated-Treatment-for-Co-Occurring-Disorders-Evidence-Based-Practices-EBP-KIT/SMA08-4367.
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Substance abuse treatment for persons with co-occurring disorders. https://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content/SMA13-3992/SMA13-3992.pdf.