Patients seek healthy skin that conveys overall health and well-being. Cosmeceuticals claim to therapeutically affect the structure and function of the skin, and it is rational to hold them to scientific standards that substantiate efficacy claims.1 Notably, it is increasingly important to consider nature-based products in helping patients and consumers to achieve healthier skin. Despite the availability of sophisticated efficacy testing, explanations of the underlying physiologic and pharmacologic principles of nature-based products lag behind those of conventional formulations. In many instances, simple form and function information cannot adequately support their desired use and expected benefits. In addition, cosmetic regulations do not even permit structure-function claims that are allowed for dietary supplements.
Physicians whose patients want recommendations for nature-based products often do not know where to turn for definitive product and use information. Unlike prescription medications or even beauty-from-within dietary supplement products, natural cosmetics and cosmeceuticals are barred from communicating scientific evidence and experience of use to form proper opinions for recommendations. Without the benefit of full product labeling, physicians are left to mine sparse, confusing, and often contradictory literature in an effort to self-educate. Here, we share our experiences with patients, our operating knowledge base, and our recommendations for investigation to improve the available information and ensure practicing physicians have the information they need to appropriately recommend nature-based products.
General Observations Pertaining to Patients and Nature-Based Products
Ethnic and cultural customs and traditions have accepted and employed nature-based products for skin health for millennia (eTables 1–3).2-20 African and the derived Caribbean cultures frequently use shea butter, black soap, or coconut oil. East Asian ethnobotanical practices include the use of ginseng, green tea, almond, and angelica root in skin care. Indian culture employs Ayurvedic medicine principles that include herbal remedies comprised of ground chickpeas, rice, turmeric, neem, ashwagandha, moringa, and kutki. These cultural traditions continue into modern times, and patients regularly use these products. Modern social trends that focus on a healthy lifestyle also create demand for nature-based products for skin health. In our opinion, the current growing interest in nature-based products implies continued growth in their use as patients become more familiar and comfortable with them.
For beauty and skin health, a new trend has evolved in which the first source of advice is rarely a dermatologist. Social media, nonphysician influencers, and pseudoscience have created an authority previously reserved for dermatologists among patients and consumers. Bloggers and social media influencers, posting their individual real-world experiences, shape the perceptions of consumers and patients.21,22 Nonphysician influencers leverage their celebrity to provide guidance and advice on beauty and cosmetic tips.23 Much of the evidence supporting cosmetic and especially nature-based products for skin care and health often is believed to be less rigorous and of lower quality than that typically supporting physician recommendations.24-26
Nature-Based Products in Skin Health and Dermatologic Conditions
Patients turn to nature-based products for skin care and health for many reasons. The simplest reason is that they grew up with such products and continue their use. Many patients find nature-based products themselves, have favorable experiences, and seek advice on their efficacy and safety for continued use. Patients also use these products as part of a holistic approach to health in which diet and exercise coincide with the idea of ministering to the whole self instead of preventing or treating an illness. These nature-based treatment options fit their natural lifestyles. Patients sometimes express concerns about synthetic products that lead them to seek out nature-based products. Chemicals and preservatives (eg, parabens, sunscreens, nanoparticles) may evoke concerns about negative health consequences, which can be a cause of great anxiety to patients.
Nature-based products, when recommended by physicians, can fulfill important roles. As healthier alternatives, they can address health concerns in the belief that plant-based ingredients may be more compatible with overall health than synthetic ingredients. This compatibility may have resulted from the human species coevolving with plant species containing therapeutic utility, leading to the development of specific receptors for many natural products, such as digoxin from foxglove (Digitalis purpurea), opioids from poppies (Papaver somniferum), and cannabinoids (Cannabis sativa and hybrids). Natural products can become alternatives to synthetic products or adjuncts to prescription medications. Often, inclusion of nature-based products into a treatment plan enables patients to feel that they are a more integral part of the care team treating their conditions. By virtue of physician recommendations, patients may have expectations on product efficacy being as robust as prescription products with the safety profile of plant-based products. Patients should be advised to accept a realistic view of the efficacy and tolerability profiles. In the end, patients consider physician recommendations based on the assumption that they are credible and derived from experience and knowledge.