GENEVA – Ustekinumab therapy appears to protect psoriasis patients against nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), according to a new analysis from the PSOLAR registry.
Compared with psoriasis patients on methotrexate, the risk of developing on-treatment NMSC was lower among patients on the interleukin-12-/23 inhibitor ustekinumab (Stelara) and those on the three tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors included in the PSOLAR registry – infliximab (Remicade), etanercept (Enbrel), and adalimumab (Humira). The lower risk was statistically significant only for ustekinumab, although there was a favorable trend with the TNF inhibitors showing a 19% relative risk reduction, Bhaskar Srivastava, MD, reported at the annual congress of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
(Psoriasis Longitudinal Assessment and Registry) is an ongoing international prospective observational study evaluating long-term safety and clinical outcomes in psoriasis patients eligible for systemic therapies. The study is now fully enrolled, with 12,090 psoriasis patients and 48,870 patient-years of follow-up and climbing, noted Dr. Srivastava, an employee of Janssen Scientific Affairs, Spring House, Pa.
This analysis focused on 6,782 PSOLAR participants with a mean 18-year history of psoriasis and no history of NMSC at enrollment: 2,623 patients on ustekinumab with 7,900 patient-years of prospective follow-up, 3,727 on a TNF inhibitor with 10,580 patient-years of follow-up, and 432 controls on methotrexate with 781 patient-years of follow-up.
Patients on a biologic were significantly younger, with a mean age of 46.7 years, versus 53.6 years for those on methotrexate. Rates of past or current smoking were similar, in the 55%-60% range, regardless of which systemic agent patients were using.
The crude unadjusted incidence rate for NMSC among all patients on a biologic was 0.33 cancers/100 patient-years, compared with 1.41/100 patient-years for psoriasis patients on methotrexate.
Patients on ustekinumab had an NMSC incidence rate of 0.19/100 patient-years, with a basal cell carcinoma rate of 0.13/100 patient-years and a squamous cell carcinoma rate of 0.06/100 patient-years. Psoriasis patients on a TNF inhibitor had an NMSC incidence rate of 0.43/100 patient-years, with a basal cell carcinoma rate of 0.26/100 patient-years and a squamous cell carcinoma rate of 0.17/100 patient-years.
In a multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, race, location, duration of psoriasis, smoking, prior malignancy, skin type, and history of treatment with cyclosporine, methotrexate, other systemic agents, or phototherapy, patients taking ustekinumab had a statistically significant 65% reduction in the risk of NMSC compared with patients on methotrexate and a 74% relative risk reduction for basal cell carcinoma; however, the squamous cell carcinoma risk in the two patient groups was similar.
Dr. Srivastava said the PSOLAR data shouldn’t be taken as the final word regarding NMSC risk and the use of biologics. He noted that psoriasis itself is associated with an increased risk of NMSC. And methotrexate, which was used as the reference standard in this analysis, may alter the risk of NMSC.
“Overall, these results require further validation in psoriasis populations with larger numbers of exposed patients,” he said.
The PSOLAR registry is funded by Janssen, where Dr. Srivastava is employed.