Doka47 has described “disenfranchised grief” in which the bereaved person does not receive the type and quality of support accorded to other bereaved persons, and thus is likely to internalize the view that his/her grief is not legitimate, and to believe that sharing related distress is a shame-ridden liability. This clearly relates to the sense of profound isolation and distress often described by clinician-survivors.
Other legal/ethical issues
The clinician-survivor’s concern about litigation, or an actual lawsuit, is likely to produce intense anxiety. This common fear is both understandable and credible. According to Bongar,48 the most common malpractice lawsuits filed against clinicians are those that involve a patient’s suicide. Peterson et al49 found that 34% of surviving family members considered bringing a lawsuit against the clinician, and of these, 57% consulted a lawyer.
In addition, an institution’s concern about protecting itself from liability may compromise its ability to support the clinician or trainee who sustained the loss. As noted above, the potential prohibitions around discussing the case can compromise the grief process. Additionally, the fear of (or actual) legal reprisals against supervisors and the larger institution may engender angry and blaming responses toward the treating clinician. In a personal communication (April 2008), Quinnett described an incident in which a supervising psychologist stomped into the grieving therapist’s office unannounced and shouted, “Now look what you’ve done! You’re going to get me sued!”
Other studies29,50,51 note that clinician-survivors fear losing their job, and that their colleagues and supervisors will be reluctant to assign new patients to them. Spiegleman and Werth17 also note that trainees grapple with additional concerns over negative evaluations, suspension or termination from clinical sites or training programs, and a potential interruption of obtaining a degree. Such supervisory and institutional reactions are likely to intensify a clinician’s sense of shame and distress, and are antithetical to postvention responses that promote optimal personal and professional growth. Such negative reactions are also likely to contribute to a clinician or trainee’s subsequent reluctance to work with suicidal individuals, or their decision to discontinue their clinical work altogether. Lastly, other ethical issues, such as contact with the patient’s family following the suicide, attending the funeral, etc., are likely to be a source of additional anxiety and distress, particularly if the clinician needs to address these issues in isolation.
Professional relationships/colleagues’ reactions
Many clinician-survivors have described reactions from colleagues and supervisors that are hurtful and unsupportive. According to Jobes and Maltsberger,52 “the suicide death of a patient in active treatment is commonly taken as prima facie evidence that the therapist, somehow or another, has mismanaged the case,” and thus the clinician often faces unwarranted blame and censure from colleagues and supervisors. Hendin et al30 noted that many trainees found reactions by their institutions to be insensitive and unsupportive, one noting that the department’s review of the case “felt more like a tribunal or inquest.” In a personal communication (April 2008), Quinnett noted that many clinicians he interviewed following a suicide loss reported a pattern of isolation and interpersonal discomfort with their colleagues, who implicitly or explicitly expressed concerns about their competence. He described how a respected colleague received “no understanding, no support, only abuse” from her supervisors. Such responses, while perhaps surprising from mental health professionals, probably reflect the long-standing cultural attitude of social condemnation of suicide, and of those who are associated with it.
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