Jordan and McIntosh22 have detailed several elements and themes that differentiate suicide loss and its associated reactions from other types of loss and grief. In general, suicide loss is considered traumatic, and is often accompanied by intense confusion and existential questioning, reflecting a negative impact on one’s core beliefs and assumptive world. The subsequent need to address the myriad of “why” questions left in its wake are often tinted with what Jordan and Baugher23 term the “tyranny of hindsight,” and take the form of implicit guilt for “sins of omission or commission” in relation to the lost individual.
Responses to suicide loss typically include initial shock, denial and numbness, intense sadness, anxiety, anger, and intense distress. Consistent with the traumatic nature of the loss, survivors are also likely to experience posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms such as intrusive thoughts, avoidance, and dissociation. Survivors also commonly experience significant guilt and shame, and this is likely to be socially reinforced by the general stigma associated with suicide as well as the actual blaming and avoidance responses of others.24-27
Clinicians’ unique reactions
For clinicians, there are additional components that may further complicate or exacerbate these reactions and extend their duration. First and foremost, such a loss affects clinicians on both personal and professional levels, a phenomenon that Plakun and Tillman13 have termed a “twin bereavement.” Thus, in addition to the personal grief and trauma reactions entailed in losing a patient to suicide, this loss is likely to impact clinicians’ professional identities, their relationships with colleagues, and their clinical work.
Clinicians’ professional identities are often predicated on generally shared assumptions and beliefs that, as trained professionals, they should have the power, aptitude, and competence to heal, or at least improve, the lives of patients, to reduce their distress, and to provide safety. In addition, such assumptions about clinicians’ responsibility and ability to prevent suicide are often reinforced in the clinical literature.28,29
These assumptions are often challenged, if not shattered, when patients take their own lives. A clinician’s sense of professional responsibility, the guilt and self-blame that may accompany this, self-doubts about one’s skills and clinical competence, the fear of (and actual) blame of colleagues and family members, and the real or imagined threat of litigation may all greatly exacerbate a clinician’s distress.11
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