Literature Review

AAN Recommends Exercise for People With MCI


 

Neurologists should recommend twice-weekly exercise to patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as part of an overall approach to management, according to a practice guideline update from the American Academy of Neurology (AAN). The Level B recommendation is based on six-month studies that suggest that such exercise possibly improves cognition. The update was published online ahead of print December 27, 2017, in Neurology.

“Regular physical exercise has long been shown to have heart health benefits, and now we can say exercise also may help improve memory for people with MCI,” said Ronald Petersen, MD, PhD, Director of the Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, and lead author of the update. “What is good for your heart can be good for your brain.”

Ronald Petersen, MD, PhD

The update also states that clinicians may recommend cognitive training for people with MCI (Level C). The evidence, however, is insufficient “to support or refute the use of any individual cognitive intervention strategy,” according to the guideline. “When various cognitive interventions are considered as a group, for patients with MCI, cognitive interventions may improve select measures of cognitive function.”

Document Updates 2001 Practice Parameter

The current practice guideline update revises the AAN’s 2001 practice parameter that provided recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of MCI. Dr. Petersen and colleagues based the update on a systematic review of articles about MCI prevalence, prognosis, and treatment. They classified evidence according to AAN criteria and based recommendations on modified Delphi consensus.

The authors found that the prevalence of MCI is 6.7% for people between ages 60 and 64, 8.4% for people between ages 65 and 69, 10.1% for people between ages 70 and 74, 14.8% for people between ages 75 and 79, and 25.2% for people between ages 80 and 84. Approximately 15% of people with MCI who are older than 65 develop dementia during two years of follow-up.

No Evidence for Pharmacologic Treatment

Evidence does not support a symptomatic cognitive benefit in MCI for any pharmacologic or dietary agents, according to the authors. The FDA has not approved any medication for treating MCI. If clinicians offer cholinesterase inhibitors to their patients with MCI, they must first discuss the fact that the treatment is off label and not backed by empirical evidence, according to the update. Gastrointestinal symptoms and cardiac concerns are common side effects of cholinesterase inhibitors.

Assessment for MCI is appropriate for patients who complain of impaired memory or cognition, as well as those who present for a Medicare Annual Wellness Visit, according to the update. Clinicians should evaluate patients with MCI for risk factors that are potentially modifiable. Patients with MCI also should undergo serial assessments over time so that clinicians can monitor them for changes in cognitive status.

—Erik Greb

Suggested Reading

Langa KM, Levine DA. The diagnosis and management of mild cognitive impairment: a clinical review. JAMA. 2014;312(23):2551-2561.

Petersen RC, Lopez O, Armstrong MJ, et al. Practice guideline update summary: Mild cognitive impairment: Report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2017 Dec 27 [Epub ahead of print].

Vega JN, Newhouse PA. Mild cognitive impairment: diagnosis, longitudinal course, and emerging treatments. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2014;16(10):490.

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