Commentary

Utilize guidelines, but customize BP treatment in older patients


 

In the article, “Hypertension treatment strategies for older adults” (J Fam Pract. 2017;66:546-554), Hansell et al recommend a systolic blood pressure (SBP) treatment target of <120 mm Hg for community-dwelling, nondiabetic patients ≥75 years of age. This recommendation is not supported by the authors’ cited guidelines, and we have serious concerns about the risk of harm from such overly stringent BP control in this population.

While Hansell et al acknowledge that no consensus exists regarding an optimal BP target for older patients, the authors cite the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8), the American College of Physicians (ACP), the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) subgroup analysis, and the BP arm of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial to justify their recommendation. But as the authors mention, JNC 8 conducted a comprehensive review of the available evidence and determined that a BP target of <150/90 mm Hg for hypertensive patients ≥60 years of age is appropriate.1

While it is tempting to make generalizations about BP treatment targets, we owe it to our patients to understand the nuances of applicable guidelines.

The authors also state that ACP recommends an SBP target of <140 mm Hg, while, in fact, the recommendations from ACP (which are joint guidelines published with the American Academy of Family Physicians) say that high-quality evidence strongly supports an SBP target of <150 mm Hg to reduce the risk for mortality, stroke, and cardiac events in adults ≥60 years of age.2

SPRINT does support Hansell et al’s recommended SBP target of <120 mm Hg, but this trial provided only composite data of adults ≥75 years of age and did not differentiate between the outcomes in otherwise healthy adults ≥75 years of age vs those with cardiovascular conditions.3 As Hansell et al point out, the SPRINT trial was halted prematurely, which compromises the validity of their findings.

Lastly, the ACCORD trial did not find benefit to treating SBP <120 mm Hg compared with <140 mm Hg in adults with diabetes, but it did find substantial harms in the <120 mm Hg group, including an increased risk of renal impairment and hypokalemia.4

Hansel et al’s overreliance on the SPRINT subgroup analysis represents a significant flaw in the assertion that an SBP target <120 mm Hg is reasonable for all community-dwelling, non-diabetic adults ≥75 years of age. While the authors made the allowance that a higher target (<140 mm Hg) is acceptable if a target of <120 mm Hg places undue burden on the patient, the guidelines they cited, when considered together, suggest that starting at a higher target is not only sufficient to prevent complications, but also reduces overtreatment.

Adults ≥75 years of age are a diverse group regarding disease conditions, life expectancy, and personal priorities. While it is tempting to make generalizations about BP treatment targets, we owe it to our patients to understand the nuances of applicable guidelines so that we can tailor BP treatment targets to each patient’s unique clinical situation and personal priorities. Applying a blanket recommendation to this heterogeneous population may result in significant harms from overtreatment.

Jennifer L. Middleton, MD, MPH, FAAFP; Miriam Chan, PharmD, CDE
Columbus, Ohio

1. James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, et al. 2014 Evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA. 2014;311:507-520.

2. Qaseem A, Wilt TJ, Rich R, et al. Pharmacological treatment of hypertension in adults aged 60 years or older to higher versus lower blood pressure targets: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Academy of Family Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2017;166:430-437.

3. Williamson JD, Suplano MA, Applegate WB, et al. Intensive vs standard blood pressure control and cardiovascular disease outcomes in adults aged ≥75 years: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016;315:2673-2682.

4. ACCORD Study Group, Cushman WC, Evans GW, Byington RP, et al. Effects of intensive blood-pressure control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:1575-1585.

Next Article: