BOSTON – In persons infected with HIV-1, with or without hepatitis C coinfections, specific circulating microRNAs may signal the presence of liver injury and progression, investigators stated.
An analysis of small RNA expression in plasma samples from 144 HIV-infected patients showed that two microRNAs (miRNAs) in the same family of RNA fragments were significantly upregulated in patients with HIV-1 and HCV coinfections that progressed to liver cirrhosis, despite the patients having no evidence of liver fibrosis at the time of plasma sampling, reported
“Our results reveal that HIV-1 infection impacts liver miRNA metabolism and upregulated plasma levels of miRNAs that were previously associated with liver damage, even in the absence of an HCV coinfection,” he said at the Conference on Retroviruses & Opportunistic Infections. He reported in a themed discussion and scientific poster session.
Dr. Martinez and his colleagues performed large-scale deep sequencing analyses of miRNAs in plasma from 144 patients with HIV-1 who had elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT), focal nodular hyperplasia, or HCV coinfections, and compared results with those from healthy blood donors and HCV mono-infected persons.
They identified 1,425 different mature miRNAs in the study samples. Compared with healthy donors, patients with HIV infections showed significantly dysregulated expression of 25 miRNAs, and 19 of these miRNAs were also found in patients with HCV monoinfection. All but 1 of 14 upregulated miRNAs in patients with HCV monoinfections were also upregulated in patients with HIV monoinfections.
Of these 13 upregulated miRNAs, 11 significantly and positively correlated with ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in most of the study samples, including those from healthy donors, Dr. Martinez noted.
“These results indicate that HIV mono-infection is able to dysregulate microRNAs related with liver injury and damage,” he said.