Dr. Springer and her colleagues had shown in athat, although 59% of HIV-positive prisoners treated with ART while incarcerated attained viral suppression, the percentage who retained suppression dropped to 18% just 3 months after they were released. The investigators also found that relapse to drug and alcohol use occurs quickly after release, and that relapses are associated with loss of viral suppression.
In the studies reported at CROI 2018, Dr. Springer and her colleagues evaluated the effects of treatment with XR-NTX on HIV viral suppression among HIV-positive prisoners and jail detainees with either opioid-use disorders () or alcohol-use disorders ( ) after they are released to the community.
Both studies were double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials. Detainees were recruited, enrolled, and randomized while imprisoned to receive either placebo or XR-NTX in six monthly injections, with the first performed in prison, and the subsequent five injections performed in the community.
The participants were all HIV-seropositive prisoners aged 18 years or older returning to communities in Connecticut and western Massachusetts who met DSM-IV criteria for either alcohol- or opioid-use disorder.