From the Journals

Pay attention to kidney disease risk in people living with HIV



The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in people living with HIV varied widely, depending on population and criteria, according to a systematic literature review of the PubMed and PsycInfo databases for articles published from January 2000 through August 2016.

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The review included all studies that involved adults older than 21 years of age, investigated people living with HIV with CKD, reported prevalence of CKD, and were published in a peer-reviewed journal, according to Jungmin Park, PhD, RN, of CHA University, Pocheon-Si, South Korea, and her colleague.

Out of an initial search yielding 1,960 citations in PubMed and 5,356 citations in PsycInfo, the results were pared down to 21 articles, which met all of the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were used for the final analysis.

The risk factors for CKD in people living with HIV cited most often in the studies consisted of medications, hypertension, older age, diabetes mellitus, hepatitis coinfection (with hepatitis C virus more prominent than hepatitis B virus), low CD4+ T-cell count, and race, Dr. Park and her colleague reported.

Of the various risk factors, the only ones unique to HIV were viral load and CD4+ T-cell count. One study reporting on 5,538 treatment-naive patients in mainland China suggested that HIV viral replication in renal cells may be the cause of renal damage in patients with high viral loads, meaning that viral suppression would improve renal function. However, all of these risk factors are intrinsically linked, according to Dr. Park and her colleague. They added that managing viral load alone would be ineffective in preventing CKD: “Therefore [people living with HIV] will need to effectively manage every aspect of their health, including metabolic and cardiovascular systems.”

Of the 43,114 people living with HIV across the 21 studies, 3,218 (7.3%) had CKD. The reported prevalence of CKD ranged from 2.3% to 53.3%, with the African population having the highest prevalence. Some of the wide variation was possibly attributable to differences in the definitions of CKD used across the various studies.

“The risk of under-diagnosis of CKD can lead to long-term health complications. Health care providers must monitor kidney function and treatment for renal damage carefully, especially for people living with HIV with additional diagnoses of diabetes and/or hypertension, and for those who are aging,” Dr. Park and her colleague concluded.

The authors reported that they had no conflicts of interest.

SOURCE: Park, J et al. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2018;29:655-66.

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