The aging of the U.S. population has led to an increase in the number of patients diagnosed with cancer each year. Fortunately, advances in screening, detection, and treatments have contributed to an improvement in cancer survival rates during the past few decades. More than 1.6 million new cases of cancer are expected to be diagnosed in 2014. It is estimated that there are currently 14 million cancer survivors, and the number of survivors by 2022 is expected to be 18 million. 1,2
The growing number of cancer survivors is exceeding the ability of the cancer care system to meet the demand. 3 Many primary care providers (PCPs) lack the confidence to provide cancer surveillance for survivors, but at the same time, patients and physicians continue to expect that PCPs will play a substantial role in general preventive health and in treating other medical problems. 4 These conditions make it critical that at a minimum, survivorship care is integrated between oncology and primary care teams through a systematic, coordinated plan. 5 This integration is especially important for the vulnerable population of veterans who are cancer survivors, as they have additional survivorship needs.
The purpose of this article is to assist other VA health care providers in establishing a cancer survivorship program to address the unique needs of veterans not only during active treatment, but after their initial treatment is completed. Described are the unique needs of veterans who are cancer survivors and the development and implementation of a cancer survivorship program at a large metropolitan VAMC, which is grounded in VA and national guidelines and evidence-based cancer care. Lessons learned and recommendations for other VA programs seeking to improve coordination of care for veteran cancer survivors are presented.
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, From Cancer Patient to Cancer Survivor: Lost in Transition, identified the importance of providing quality survivorship care to those “living with, through, and beyond a diagnosis of cancer.” 6,7 The period of survivorship extends from the time of diagnosis, through treatment, long-term survival, and end-of-life. 8,9 Although there are several definitions of cancer survivor, the most widely accepted definition is one who has been diagnosed with cancer, regardless of their position on the disease trajectory. 8
The complex needs of cancer survivors encompass physical, psychological, social, and spiritual concerns across the disease trajectory. 3 Cancer survivors who are also veterans have additional needs and risk factors related to their service that can make survivorship care more challenging. 10 Veterans tend to be older compared with the age of the general population, have more comorbid conditions, and many have combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), all of which can complicate the survivorship experience. 11
The first challenge for veteran cancer survivors is in the term cancer survivor, which may take on a different meaning for a veteran when compared with a civilian. For some civilians and veterans, survivor is a constant reminder of having had cancer. There are some veterans who prefer not to be called survivors, because they do not feel worthy of this terminology. They believe they have not struggled enough to self-identify as a survivor and that survivorship is “something to be earned, following a physically grueling experience.” 12
The meaning of the word survivor may even be culturally linked to the population of veterans who have survived a life-threatening combat experience. More research is needed to understand the veteran cancer survivorship experience. The meaning of survivorship must be explored with each veteran, as it may influence his or her adherence to a survivorship plan of care.
Veterans make up a unique subset of cancer survivors, in part because of risk factors associated with their service. Many veterans developed cancer as a result of their military exposure to toxic chemicals and radiation. To date, VA recognizes that chronic B-cell leukemias, Hodgkin disease, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphomas, prostate cancer, respiratory cancers, and soft tissue sarcomas are all presumptive diseases related to Agent Orange exposure. 13 There are other substances also presumed to increase the risk of certain cancers in veterans who have had ionizing radiation exposure. 14 There is still much to learn regarding veterans who served during the Gulf War, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation Iraqi Freedom. 15,16
In a comparison of VA data files with U.S. SEER data files from 2007, researchers identified differences in characteristics between veteran cancer survivors and civilian cancer survivors. 17 In addition to increased exposure risks, the veteran cancer survivor population is older than the general cancer survivorship