Neurotoxin Treatment of the Upper Face
Neurotoxin injections have continued to increase in popularity over the last decade. Currently, several different preparations of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A)(onabotulinumtoxinA [Botox Cosmetic, Allergan, Inc]; abobotulinumtoxinA [Dysport, Medicis Aesthetics Inc]; incobotulinumtoxinA [Xeomin, Merz Aesthetics, Inc]) and botulinum toxin type B (BTX-B)(rimabotulinumtoxinB [Myobloc, Solstice Neurosciences, Inc]) are available in the United States. Although common injection techniques exist for the various muscle groups of the upper face, every patient is unique and should be individually assessed. Evaluating and understanding the muscular anatomy is crucial in mastering injection techniques and avoiding complications. On the horizon are exciting new topical and injectable forms of botulinum toxin (BTX) that will continue to influence the cosmetic art of rejuvenating the aging face.