A diet higher in fat, sugar, and milk was associated with having acne in a cross-sectional study of approximately 24,000 adults in France.
Acne in adults has been associated with social, emotional, and psychological consequences similar to those found with chronic diseases such as asthma, arthritis, epilepsy, and diabetes, wrote Laetitia Penso, MSc, of the University of Paris in Bobigny, France, and colleagues.
Although acne patients may believe that eating certain foods exacerbates acne, data on the effects of nutrition on acne, including associations between acne and a high-glycemic diet, are limited and have produced conflicting results, they noted.
In their, published in JAMA Dermatology, the researchers identified 24,452 adults who participated in the , an ongoing, web-based study in France. Approximately 75% of the participants were women, the average age was 57 years, and 46% reported past or current acne.
Participants responded to an 11-item questionnaire between November 2008 and July 2019. Questions were related to the occurrence and diagnosis of acne, as well as medical history. Based on their acne status, participants were identified as falling into the categories of never acne, past acne, or current acne, and their dietary intake was assessed at baseline and every 6 months using three nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary records for 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day.
In an analysis, after adjustment for confounders, current acne was significantly associated with consumption of fatty and sugary foods (per portion, adjusted odds ratio, 1.54; P = .01), as well as with consumption of sugary drinks (per glass, aOR, 1.18; P = .04) and milk (per glass, aOR, 1.12; P = .04). In addition, carbohydrate intake and saturated fatty acid intake were significantly associated with current acne (aOR, 1.43; P = .02; and aOR, 3.90; P = .048, respectively).
Three dietary patterns accounted for 42% of the total variability, the researchers said. A healthy pattern of higher fruit, vegetable, and fish intake accounted for 18%, a fatty and sugary pattern of higher fat and sugar intake (including chocolate) accounted for 13%, and an animal product and cereal pattern of higher intake of meat, milk, and refined cereals accounted for 11%, they explained.
“The results of our study appear to support the hypothesis that the Western diet (rich in animal products and fatty and sugary foods) is associated with the presence of acne in adulthood,” the researchers concluded. Possible explanations for the findings include the effects of a high glycemic-load diet on circulating IGF-1 and insulin, which ultimately increases both oxidative stress and inflammation that promotes the development of acne, they noted.
The study findings were limited by several factors including the use of relatively homogenous younger and female patient population and the reliance on self-reported acne, as well as the observational design, which did not allow for identification of direct, causal associations between diet and acne, the researchers noted. Larger studies are needed to examine the relationship between diet and adult acne to inform prevention and treatment, they wrote.
“Much of the previous literature on the role of diet in acne has focused on the association of milk consumption and high glycemic-load diet with acne,” John S. Barbieri, MD, of the department of dermatology at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, wrote in an accompanying.
Dr. Barbieri acknowledged the inability to make causal associations given the study design and noted that dietary interventions should be implemented with caution because of the potential for other effects such as reduced calcium or vitamin D.
“Nevertheless, given the potential overall health benefits of a healthy or low glycemic-load diet, and 2 small trials supporting its effectiveness in acne, a low glycemic-load diet is a reasonable recommendation for patients looking for dietary modifications that may improve their acne,” he said.
Dr. Barbieri said that he was encouraged to see that the study findings reflected previous research identifying an association between acne and high-glycemic load foods, as well as milk consumption, but he emphasized that more research is needed before general recommendations about diet and acne can be made.
“Trials are needed to evaluate whether dietary interventions can improve or prevent acne and how the effect size of such interventions compares with other standard treatment modalities,” he emphasized.
The study received no outside funding. The researchers had no financial conflicts to disclose. Dr. Barbieri disclosed support from the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases of the National Institutes of Health and from a Pfizer Fellowship grant to the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania.
SOURCE: Penso L et al. JAMA Dermatol. 2020 June 10. .