Conference Coverage

Coming acne drugs might particularly benefit skin of color patients


 

EXPERT ANALYSIS FROM SOC 2019

– The most recently approved therapy for acne, sarecycline, as well as several agents in late stages of clinical testing, might represent a particular advance for treating black patients or others with darker skin tones due to a reduced risk of irritation, according to a review presented at the Skin of Color Update 2019.

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Acne is an inflammatory skin disease, but patients with darker skin tones are at a high risk of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), a complication many consider worse than the acne itself, according to Andrew Alexis, MD, director of the Skin of Color Center and chair of the department of dermatology at Mount Sinai St. Luke’s, New York.

“The importance of PIH is that it alters our endpoint in patients of color. Not only are we treating the pustules, comedones, and other classic features of acne, but we have to treat all the way through to the resolution of the PIH if we want a satisfied patient,” he said.

There are data to back this up. In one of the surveys cited by Dr. Alexis, 42% of nonwhite patients identified resolution of PIH as the most important goal in the treatment of their acne.

As in those with light skin, acute acne lesions in darker skin can resolve relatively rapidly after initiating an effective regimen that includes established therapies such as retinoids or antibiotics. However, PIH, once it develops, might take 6-12 months to resolve, according to Dr. Alexis, who is a professor of dermatology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York.

Dr. Andrew Alexis, director of the Skin of Color Center, Mount Sinai St. Luke’s, New York Ted Bosworth/MDedge News

Dr. Andrew Alexis

“You have to keep in mind the subclinical inflammation, which can be a slow burning process beneath the surface of the skin,” he said. He cited a biopsy study that demonstrated inflammation even in nonlesional skin of black patients with acne.

Because of the slow reversal of PIH, it is imperative in skin of color patients to employ therapies with the least risk of exacerbating PIH. While this includes judicious use of currently available agents, Dr. Alexis believes that newer agents might have a larger therapeutic window, reducing the potential for inflammation at effective doses.

This advantage has yet to be confirmed in head-to-head studies, but Dr. Alexis is optimistic. In the case of sarecycline, which became the first antibiotic approved specifically for acne when it was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2018, about 20% of those included in the phase 3 registration trial were nonwhite, he said.


The results were “impressive” regardless of skin color in the phase 3 study, according to Dr. Alexis. He conceded that this is not the only antibiotic with anti-inflammatory activity, but he suggested that a high degree of efficacy might be relevant for early acne control and a reduced risk of PIH.

The same can be said for trifarotene, a novel topical retinoid that was associated with highly significant reductions in both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesion counts in a recently published phase 3 trial (J Am Acad Dermatol. 2019 Jun;80[6]:1691-9). According to Dr. Alexis, the impact of this therapy on PIH has not been specifically tested, but he expects those data to be forthcoming.

A new 0.045% lotion formulation of tazarotene might also widen the therapeutic window relative to current tazarotene formulations based on clinical trials he cited. Despite a concentration that is about half that of the currently available tazarotene cream, the efficacy of this product appeared to be at least as good “without the baggage of a greater potential for irritation,” he said.

After “a few years of drought” regarding new options for treatment of acne, these are not the only promising agents in clinical trials, according to Dr. Alexis. If these agents prove to offer greater efficacy with less irritation, their increased clinical value might prove most meaningful to patients with darker skin.

“There is a delicate balance between maximizing efficacy without causing irritation that leads to PIH in patients with skin of color,” he cautioned. He is hopeful that the newer agents will make this balance easier to achieve.

Dr. Alexis has financial relationships with many pharmaceutical companies, including many that market drugs for acne.

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