Even in environments that allow for a more comprehensive evaluation (eg, jail or inpatient psychiatric wards), few psychometric tests have been validated to detect malingering. The most validated tests include the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS), distributed now as the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms, 2nd edition (SIRS-2), and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Revised (MMPI-2). These tests typically require ≥30 minutes to administer and generally are not feasible in the fast-paced ER.
Despite the high prevalence of malingered behaviors in the ER, no single test has been validated in such a setting. Furthermore, there is no test designed to specifically assess for malingered suicidality or homicidality. The results of one test do not, in isolation, represent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination; rather, those results provide additional data to formulate a clinical impression. The instruments discussed below are administered and scored in a defined, objective manner.
When evaluating a patient whom you suspect of malingering, gathering collateral information—from family members, friends, nurses, social workers, emergency medicine physicians, and others—becomes important. You might discover pertinent information in ambulance and police reports and a review of the patient’s prior ER visits.
During the initial interview, ask open-ended questions; do not lead the patient by listing clusters of symptoms associated with a particular diagnosis. Because it is often difficult for a patient to malinger symptoms for a prolonged period, serial observations of a patient’s behavior and interview responses over time can provide additional information to make a clinical diagnosis of malingering.4
What testing is feasible in the ER?
Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test. The M-FAST measures rare symptom combinations, excessive reporting, and atypical symptoms of psychosis, using the same principles as the SIRS-2.
The 25-item screen begins by advising the examinee that he (she) will be asked questions about his psychological symptoms and that the questions that follow might or might not apply to his specific symptoms.
After that brief introduction, the examinee is asked if he hears ringing in his ears. Based on his response, the examiner reads one of two responses—both of which suggest the false notion that patients with true mental illness will suffer from ringing in their ears.
The examinee is then asked a series of Yes or No questions. Some pertain to legitimate symptoms a person with a psychotic illness might suffer (such as, “Do voices tell you to do things? Yes or No?”). Conversely, other questions screen for improbable symptoms that are atypical of patients who have a true psychotic disorder (such as “On many days I feel so bad that I can’t even remember my full name: Yes or No?”).
The exam concludes with a question about a ringing in the examinee’s ear. Affirmative responses are tallied; a score of ≥6 in a clinical setting is 83% specific and 93% sensitive for malingering.10
Visual Memory Test. Rey’s 15-Item Visual Memory Test capitalizes on the false belief that intellectual deficits, in addition to psychotic symptoms, make a claim of mental illness more believable.
In this simple test, the provider tells the examinee, “I am going to show you a card with 15 things on it that I want you to remember. When I take the card away, I want you to write down as many of the 15 things as you can remember.”3 The examinee is shown 15 common symbols (eg, 1, 2, 3; A, B, C; I, II, III, a, b, c; and the geometrics ●, ■, ▲).
At 5 seconds, the examinee is prompted, “Be sure to remember all of them.” After 10 seconds, the stimulus is removed, and the examinee is asked to recreate the figure.
Normative data indicate that even a patient who has a severe traumatic brain injury is able to recreate at least eight of the symbols. Although controversial, research indicates that a score of <9 symbols is predictive of malingering with 40% sensitivity and 100% specificity.11
Critics argued that confounding variables (IQ, memory disorder, age) might skew the quantitative score. For that reason, the same group developed the Rey’s II Test, which includes a supplementary qualitative scoring system that emphasizes embellishment errors (eg, the wrong symbol) and ordering errors (eg, wrong row). The Rey’s II Test proved to be more sensitive (accurate classification of malingers): A cut-off score of ≥2 qualitative errors is predictive of malingering with 86% sensitivity and 100% specificity.12
Coin-in-the-Hand Test. Perhaps the simplest test to administer is the Coin-in-the-Hand, designed to seem—superficially—to be a challenging memory test.
The patient must guess in which hand the examiner is holding a coin. The patient is shown the coin for two seconds, and then asked to close his eyes and count back from 10. The patient then points to one of the two clenched hands.