When is treatment indicated? For years, bereavement theorists emphasized the need to work through emotions and memories related to the deceased with particular focus on negative material. However, evidence suggests that universal application of treatment to all bereaved individuals is unhelpful. In a recent meta-analysis, Neimeyer et al11 found that the outcomes of grief therapy applied indiscriminately to all bereaved adults or all members of high-risk populations—such as parents whose child experienced a violent death—were no better than would be expected by the passage of time. In contrast, grief therapy applied only to those who develop elevated and persistent distress (eg, CG) led to greater and more enduring improvement in post-loss distress than was observed in control conditions.
These results suggest that most grieving individuals who do not meet criteria for CG (or other psychiatric disorders) will not require intervention. Those who do seek treatment for grief-related distress in the acute grief period should be assessed for bereavement-related depression, anxiety, and suicidality, and treated or referred to professional or community-based resources for support or counseling as clinically indicated.
Evidence for psychotherapy. For those who meet CG criteria, psychotherapy targeting the specific symptoms of CG is helpful. The evidence is strongest for CG treatment (CGT), a 16-session, manualized psychotherapy developed by M. Katherine Shear, MD.12 CGT is based on an attachment model and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) principles, and is informed by the dual-process theory proposed by Stroebe et al.13 According to this theory, natural healing following loss comprises 2 processes:
- a loss-oriented process in which the patient comes to terms with the loss, and
- a restoration-oriented process in which the patient reinvigorates a sense of purpose and meaning in life without the deceased.
CGT focuses on both processes. To address the former, it includes clinician-guided exercises in which the patient revisits the time of the death and planned activities in which the patient reengages with people, places, or thoughts that remind him or her of the deceased. CGT aims to allow the patient to gain an increased tolerance of the distressing thoughts and emotions associated with the loss so that these thoughts can be processed and the finality of the death and its circumstances can be accepted.
The restoration process is addressed by having patients generate and discuss personal goals and aspirations for the near and distant future, as well as scheduling pleasurable and rewarding events. This is accomplished by having patients imagine what they would want for themselves if their grief was less intense and planning concrete steps to take toward these goals. The restoration-oriented process is addressed concurrent with the loss-oriented process to encourage the oscillation between processes thought to be characteristic of a natural healing process following the loss of a loved one.
Other psychotherapy approaches (eg, support groups) may have a role for some individuals, and future research may suggest alternative approaches to CGT. To date, CGT is the most targeted evidence-based psychotherapy with randomized controlled data supporting its use in CG.
Pharmacotherapy for CG. Early research suggested that antidepressants—in particular tricyclics—may effectively reduce depressive symptoms in bereavement-related depression; their effect on CG symptoms, however, may not be as strong.14 Research on pharmacologic treatment that targets CG symptoms is developing. Because of the overlap between CG, PTSD, and MDD, researchers have hypothesized that antidepressants may be effective. Two open-label studies reported that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram may be effective for CG.15,16 Although a post-hoc comparison of paroxetine and nortriptyline17 showed significant reduction in CG and depressive symptoms with both agents, effects could not be separated from concomitant psychotherapy. Furthermore, an examination of naturalistic data on combining antidepressants with CGT suggested that antidepressants may improve outcomes for individuals receiving CGT.18 A multicenter, randomized controlled trial funded by the National Institute of Mental Health is examining the potential efficacy of citalopram, an SSRI, alone or in combination with CGT.19
The efficacy of benzodiazepines, which commonly are prescribed for bereaved individuals, has not been assessed in CG. However, recent research suggests they may not be useful for medically managing recent grief20 and that their use in the aftermath of a loss may lead to long-term dependence in geriatric patients.21
- Center for Anxiety and Traumatic Stress Disorders. Massachusetts General Hospital. www.bostongrief.com.
- Zisook S, Shear K. Grief and bereavement: what psychiatrists need to know. World Psychiatry. 2009;8(2):67-74.
- Bonanno G. The other side of sadness: what the new science of bereavement tells us about loss. New York, NY: Basic Books; 2009.