Psychiatric illness or illicit substance use. Because Mr. G was 56 years old and had no known psychiatric history or family psychiatric history, a primary psychiatric illness seemed less likely. Substance-induced psychosis related to illicit substance use also seemed unlikely because he denied using illicit substances, and an expanded urine drug screen was negative.
Psychosis due to a general medical condition. Results from Mr. G’s laboratory workup show marked elevation in multiple inflammation-related biomarkers (Table 1), consistent with the inflammatory profile seen with COVID-19 infection. However, results from several laboratory tests for potential etiologies of new-onset psychosis due to a general medical condition were negative (Table 2). Based on Mr. G’s history of prostate cancer, we considered the possibility of metastatic space-occupying lesions of the brain; however, Mr. G’s head CT showed no acute intracranial abnormalities. Another possible etiology we considered was COVID-19–induced encephalitis; however, Mr. G’s brain MRI with and without contrast showed no evidence of acute or chronic intracranial changes.
Medication-induced psychosis. After largely ruling out primary psychiatric illnesses, illicit substances, and sequelae of general medical conditions, we turned our attention to prescribed medications as a potential etiology of Mr. G’s new-onset psychosis. During his initial hospitalization, Mr. G had been prescribed 2 doses of hydroxychloroquine, 400 mg, to treat his diagnosis of COVID-19. Because none of the other medications he received were reported to have neuropsychiatric adverse effects, including psychosis, hydroxychloroquine-induced psychosis was therefore the primary team’s working diagnosis.
EVALUATION Request to leave AMA
On Day 13, Mr. G requests to leave the hospital against medical advice (AMA). Until this point, he had voluntarily remained in the hospital, which he repeatedly referred to as “Heaven.” When asked to describe his medical condition, Mr. G replies, “God told me my condition is far beyond man’s understanding.” He denies that he is positive for COVID-19. He states, “I am cured, and the real fight has just begun.”
At the recommendation of the psychiatry consultation-liaison (C-L) service, the primary treatment team determines that Mr. G does not have capacity to leave AMA. The team is concerned that because of his psychotic symptoms, Mr. G would be unable to understand and follow his quarantine instructions. He remains hospitalized on a medical hold.
Continue to: The authors' observations