The types of cases. Most of the patients coming to both hospitals had diagnoses of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, substance use disorder, or epilepsy. My impression was that patients or family members sought treatment for disorders that were conspicuous. I saw <5 cases of depression or anxiety. I wonder if this was because:
- patients with these disorders were referred to psychologists
- patients sought out faith-based treatment
- there was a lower incidence of these disorders, or these disorders were detected less frequently.
Inadequate funding. Despite the clinicians’ astute observations and diagnoses, they faced challenges, including a lack of access to medications because pharmacies were out of stock, or the patient or hospital could not afford the medication. At times, these challenges resulted in patients admitted to the hospital not receiving medications. When Mental Health Act 846 was implemented, it was widely purported that mental health care would be available to everyone, but the funding mechanism was not firmly established.8,9 Currently, laboratory workup, mental health treatment, and medications are not covered by health insurance, and government funding for mental health is insufficient. Therefore, in most areas, the entire cost burden of psychiatric care falls on patients and their families, or on hospitals.
Making progress despite barriers
In her inaugural address, former American Psychiatric Association President Altha J. Stewart, MD, named expanding the organization’s work in global mental health as one of her 3 primary goals.10 There are several means by which American psychiatrists can support the work of psychiatrists in Ghana and elsewhere. One way is by helping the mental health commission and other entities within the country petition the government and health insurance companies to expand coverage for mental health services. Teleconferencing, in which psychiatrists in Ghana or other parts of the world provide supervision to mid-level clinicians, has been piloted in other countries such as Liberia and could be implemented to address the critical shortages of psychiatrists in certain regions.11
In the past 7 years, Ghana has made significant strides in destigmatizing mental illness, and as a result more individuals are seeking treatment and more clinicians at all levels are being trained. Despite significant barriers, physicians, nurses, and other mental health workers deliver empathic and evidence-based treatment in a manner that defies the mental health system’s current limitations.