Evidence-Based Reviews

Agitation in children and adolescents: Diagnostic and treatment considerations

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References

Psychiatric causes

Autism spectrum disorder. Children and teens with autism often feel overwhelmed due to transitions, changes, and/or sensory overload. This sensory overload may be in response to relatively subtle sensory stimuli, so it may not always be apparent to parents or others around them.

Research suggests that in general, the ability to cope effectively with emotions is difficult without optimal language development. Due to cognitive/language delays and a related lack of emotional attunement and limited skills in recognizing, expressing, or coping with emotions, difficult emotions in children and adolescents with autism can manifest as agitation.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Children with ADHD may be at a higher risk for agitation, in part due to poor impulse control and limited coping skills. In addition, chronic negative feedback (from parents, teachers, or both) may contribute to low self-esteem, mood symptoms, defiance, and/or other behavioral difficulties. In addition to standard pharmacotherapy for ADHD, treatment involves parent behavior modification training. Setting firm yet empathic limits, “picking battles,” and implementing a developmentally appropriate behavioral plan to manage disruptive behavior in children or adolescents with ADHD can go a long way in helping to prevent the emergence of agitation.

Posttraumatic stress disorder. In some young children, new-onset, unexplained agitation may be the only sign of abuse or trauma. Children who have undergone trauma tend to experience confusion and distress. This may manifest as agitation or aggression, or other symptoms such as increased anxiety or nightmares.5 Trauma may be in the form of witnessing violence (domestic or other); experiencing physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse; or witnessing/experiencing other significant threats to the safety of self and/or loved ones. Re-establishing (or establishing) a sense of psychological and physical safety is paramount in such patients.6 Psychotherapy is the first-line modality of treatment in children and adolescents with PTSD.6 In general, there is a scarcity of research on medication treatments for PTSD symptoms among children and adolescents.6

Oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) can be comorbid with ADHD. The diagnosis of ODD requires a pervasive pattern of anger, defiance, vindictiveness, and hostility, particularly towards authority figures. However, these symptoms need to be differentiated from the normal range of childhood behavior. Occasionally, children learn to cope maladaptively through disruptive behavior or agitation. Although a parent or caregiver may see this behavior as intentionally malevolent, in a child with limited coping skills (whether due to young age, developmental/cognitive/language/learning delays, or social communication deficits) or one who has witnessed frequent agitation or aggression in the family environment, agitation and disruptive behavior may be a maladaptive form of coping. Thus, diligence needs to be exercised in the diagnosis of ODD and in understanding the psychosocial factors affecting the child, particularly because impulsiveness and uncooperativeness on their own have been found to be linked to greater likelihood of prescription of psychotropic medications from multiple classes.7 Family-based interventions, particularly parent training, family therapy, and age-appropriate child skills training, are of prime importance in managing this condition.8 Research shows that a shortage of resources, system issues, and cultural roadblocks in implementing family-based psychosocial interventions also can contribute to the increased use of psychotropic medications for aggression in children and teens with ODD, conduct disorder, or ADHD.8 The astute clinician needs to be cognizant of this before prescribing.

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