Other medications. Some researchers have suggested treating paraphilic disorders with psychotropic medications known to lower libido, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).16 However, leuprolide is far more reliable in consistently lowering testosterone and lowering the frequency and intensity of sexual urges. Although psychiatrists unfamiliar with treating paraphilic disorders may feel more comfortable initiating treatment with an SSRI, in my clinical experience, SSRIs have often proven inadequate for this purpose. When it comes to those paraphilic disorders in which treatment failure can result in significant harm (eg, pedophilic disorder), in my judgment, leuprolide should be the pharmacologic treatment of choice.
The opioid antagonist naltrexone has been used clinically to reduce cravings, primarily cravings for alcohol or drugs.17 However, I have not seen convincing evidence that it can be reliably beneficial in treating paraphilic disorders.
Tests to order before starting leuprolide
Long-term use of leuprolide can increase the risk of osteoporosis. Therefore, a baseline bone density scan should be performed before starting a patient on leuprolide. Baseline levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone also should be obtained. Patients should have yearly physical examinations, with accompanying laboratory testing. Hematocrit levels are often marginally low after beginning treatment, but not in a clinically significant way. Patients should also undergo routine monitoring for possible weight gain and the potential for associated hypertension. Treatment is predicated upon the known testosterone-suppressing effects of leuprolide, not upon routine monitoring of blood androgen levels.
Pharmacologic treatment of a paraphilic disorder should ordinarily occur in conjunction with nonpharmacologic modalities. One such modality would be group therapy, similar to the type frequently used to treat other craving disorders, such as drug or alcohol dependency.
In recent years, I have seen increasing numbers of patients presenting with a history of accessing and viewing child pornography. Once they have become more aware of the serious consequences of this behavior, most patients have been able to discontinue doing so without pharmacologic treatment. However, for patients in whom that behavior has seemed more driven (suggestive of a variant of voyeuristic disorder), prescription of leuprolide has been beneficial. Under such circumstances, I have diagnosed the patient’s condition as “other specified paraphilic disorder” with elements of pedophilia and voyeurism—the associated behaviors restricted to the voyeuristic viewing of child pornography.18
Continue to: Can treated patients still be sexual?