As psychiatrists treating an aging population, we frequently face the daunting challenges of managing medically complex and behaviorally unstable patients whose fragile condition tests the brightest among us. As our population enters late life, not only are physicians confronted with aging patients whose bodies have decreased renal and hepatic function, but we also face the challenges of the aging brain, severed neuronal networks, and neurotransmitter diminution. These physiological changes can alter treatment response, increase the frequency of adverse effects, and increase the likelihood of emergence of behavioral and psychological symptoms.
During the past decade, the number of people reaching age 65 has dramatically increased. As life expectancy improves, the “oldest old”—those age 85 and older—are the fastest-growing segment of the population. The prevalence of cognitive impairment, including mild cognitive impairment and dementia, in this cohort is >40%.1 Roughly 90% of patients with dementia will develop clinically significant behavioral problems at some point in the course of their illness.2
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) have a tremendous impact on the quality of life for both patients and their caregivers. We are experts in understanding these behaviors and crafting nonpharmacologic treatment plans to manage them. Understanding the context in which behaviors emerge allows us to modify the environment, communication strategies, and other potential triggers, in turn reducing the need for pharmacologic intervention.
However, when nonpharmacologic interventions have been exhausted, what are the options? Antipsychotics have been one of the approaches used to address the challenges of behavioral disturbances and psychosis occurring in dementia. Unfortunately, there is conflicting evidence regarding the risks and benefits associated with the use of antipsychotics in this population. In this article, we provide a roadmap for the judicious use of antipsychotics for patients with dementia.
Weighing the risks and benefits of antipsychotics
Until better treatment options become available, second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) continue to have an important but limited role in the treatment of behavioral disturbances in dementia. Although safety risks exist, they can be minimized through the careful selection of appropriate patients for treatment, close monitoring, and effective communication with patients and caregivers before and during treatment.
Several studies examining the efficacy of antipsychotics in the treatment of BPSD have demonstrated an increased risk of cerebrovascular events, including stroke and death due to any cause.3 This evidence prompted the FDA to issue a “black-box” warning in 2005 to highlight the increased risk of mortality for patients with dementia who are treated with SGAs.4 Both first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and SGAs have been associated with higher rates of mortality than most other psychotropic classes, except anticonvulsants. This increased mortality risk has been shown to persist for at least 6 to 12 months.5,6 FGAs appear to be associated with a greater mortality risk compared with SGAs. As a result, if antipsychotic treatment is necessary, the use of FGAs in this population is not recommended.
The potential mechanisms leading to stroke and death remain unclear. They could include orthostatic hypotension, anticholinergic adverse effects, QT prolongation, platelet aggregation effects, and venous thromboembolism. The presence of cardiovascular and vascular risk factors, electrolyte imbalances, cardiac arrhythmias, and concomitant use of medications that prolong the QTc interval may confer additional risks.
Continued to: Although the use of antipsychotics for patients with dementia...