- Medicare and Medicaid are on the brink of insolvency, and you’re not just a bystander
Robert L. Barbieri, MD (Editorial, October 2011)
- 14 questions (and answers) about health reform and you
Lucia DiVenere, ACOG Director of Government Affairs, with OBG MANAGEMENT Senior Editor Janelle Yates (June 2010)
In the 18 months since the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act—otherwise known as ACA, or health-care reform—was signed into law by President Barack Obama, the outlook for private practice, in any specialty, has dimmed. As a recent report on the ramifications of the ACA put it:
The imperative to care for more patients, to provide higher perceived quality, at less cost, with increased reporting and tracking demands, in an environment of high potential liability and problematic reimbursement, will put additional stress on physicians, particularly those in private practice.1
To explore the impact of these stresses on ObGyns specifically, the editors of OBG Management invited Lucia DiVenere, Senior Director of Government Affairs for the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), to talk about the outlook for private practice in the coming years. In the exchange, Ms. DiVenere discusses the short- and long-term effects of the ACA, the ways in which ObGyn practice is (or is not) evolving, the challenge of making the switch to electronic health records (EHRs), the reasons ACOG opposed the ACA, and other issues related to the current practice environment. In addition, two ObGyns in private practice describe the many challenges they face (see “The view from private practice,” pages 44 and 52).
What nonlegislative forces have affected private practice?
OBG Management: A recent report on the ramifications of the ACA argues that formal reform was inevitable. It also asserts that private practice was subject to many negative pressures long before health-care reform was passed.1 Do you agree?
Ms. DiVenere: Our nation’s health-care system is always evolving, and over the past decade, we’ve seen a clear trend toward system integration—that is, larger, physician-led group practices and hospital employment of physicians.
Looking at physicians as a whole, the percentage who practice solo or in two-physician practices fell from 40.7% in 1996–97 to 32.5% by 2004–05, according to a 2007 survey.2 And the American Medical Association (AMA) reported that the percentage of physicians “with an ownership stake in their practice declined from 61.6% to 54.4% as more physicians opted for employment. Both the trends away from solo and two-physician practices and toward employment were more pronounced for specialists and older physicians.”2
OBG Management: What has the trend been for ObGyns, specifically?
Ms. DiVenere: The ObGyn specialty employs the group practice model—health care delivered by three or more physicians—more frequently than other specialties do, largely because of the support it provides for 24–7 OB call schedules.
As for private practice, ObGyns have been moving away from it for 10 years or longer. Data from a 1991 ACOG survey shows that 77% of respondents were in private practice; by 2003, that percentage had fallen to 70%.3 In 2003, ObGyns in private practice tended to be older (median age: 47 years) than their salaried colleagues (median: 42 years) and were more likely to be male (87% vs 77%).3 The demographic change toward women ObGyns may add to this trend line.
OBG Management: What economic forces have shaped practice paradigms in ObGyn?
Ms. DiVenere: Median expenses for private practices have been steadily rising in relation to revenues—from 52% in 1990 to 71% in 2002—making it difficult for practices to remain solvent.4 In addition, a 2011 survey from Medscape reveals that ObGyns in solo practice earn $15,000 to $25,000 less annually than their employed colleagues.5
ObGyns who have made the switch from private to hospital practice, or who have become ObGyn hospitalists, often point to the difficulties of maintaining a solvent private practice, especially given the push toward electronic health records (EHRs) and increasing regulatory and administrative burdens. These and other issues contribute to rising practice costs and increasing demands on an ObGyn’s time and attention.
“I still love what I do”
I’ve been in solo ObGyn practice for 10 years. Before that, I worked 10 years for two medical groups—that makes 20 years of medical practice. I entered medicine late after teaching school for 10 years.
Most of my patients used to have union jobs and were employed by the steel mills in south Chicago and Northwest Indiana or in construction or manufacturing. One of the benefits of a union job was good insurance. As the economy began to sour, those mills changed hands and are now owned largely by foreign companies. Wages were cut dramatically, and insurance benefits are now “bare bones.” I continue to see my patients regardless of their circumstances.
Most maternity benefits require a hefty out-of-pocket expense. Around here, the doctor gets stuck with the deductible and, consequently, ends up doing lots of free deliveries. I haven’t figured it out yet, but I’m willing to bet that I lose money on OB.
Most patients realize that it’s tough to run a business on a declining revenue stream and are grateful that I take care of them. I’ve treated many of their family members, delivered their babies, provided primary care, done prolapse repairs on mom and grandmom. I know everybody by name—that’s the school teacher in me. I still feel honored to do what I do, but it isn’t easy. The other docs who cover for me on my rare days off, for CME, tell me I have “a nice practice.” That’s why I do it, for the good, salt-of-the-earth folks who would like to pay their bills if times were better.
Medicine is changing quickly. It has taken time to learn the electronic health record (EHR) at the local hospital. Every documentation takes longer. I now spend more time at the computer desk than with patients on hospital rounds. I have read about accountable care organizations and being “enabled,” but the next round of payment cuts will likely kill private practice.
I have Indiana University medical students come and rotate with me, and I try to be as upbeat as I can. The students tell me that my office is the one everyone wants to rotate through. I used to hope that someone might come back and join me here—but maybe the young people have it right. They won’t live with a pager all the time. They won’t do call. To them, medicine will be a job. They will be “providers.”
I may not have practiced in the golden age of medicine, but at least I feel that I had an impact on the lives of the families I have been honored to serve. I still love what I do—it’s just getting harder to justify doing it.
—Mary Vanko, MD