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Long-term maintenance required in melasma patients


 

AT MOAS 2022

When Arisa E. Ortiz, MD, meets with patients who seek treatment for melasma, she tells them that while she can make their hyperpigmentation better, no cure-all exists for the condition.

“They need to understand that melasma is going to require long-term maintenance,” Dr. Ortiz, director of laser and cosmetic dermatology at the University of California, San Diego, said at the annual Masters of Aesthetics Symposium.

A person with melasma. yuuurin/iStock/Getty Images

Hydroquinone is a mainstay of melasma therapy, but instead of the commonly used 4% formulation, she prefers to use 12% hydroquinone with 6% kojic acid in VersaBase cream. “It’s a high concentration but the VersaBase makes it more tolerable,” she said. “I have patients take a pea-sized amount and mix it in a regular moisturizer. It’s too strong to spot treat, so it goes on the whole face.”

Mindful that chronic hydroquinone use can cause ochronosis (permanent darkening), she has patients alternate with a nonhydroquinone bleaching agent such as lignin peroxidase, oligopeptide, Lytera, Melaplex, 4-n-butylresorcinol, Cysteamine cream, tranexamic acid, or oral antioxidants. In a study sponsored by SkinMedica, investigators conducted a randomized, double-blind, half-face study in females with moderate to severe facial hyperpigmentation to assess the efficacy and tolerability of three new skin brightener formulations containing SMA-432, a prostaglandin E2 inhibitor, compared with 4% hydroquinone. They found that the nonhydroquinone skin formulations were better tolerated and were just as effective as 4% hydroquinone.

Chemical peels and laser treatments

Chemical peels are another treatment option for melasma, but Dr. Ortiz prefers glycolic peels over salicylic and other peels, “because there is no downtime,” she said.

Arisa E. Ortiz, MD, director of laser and cosmetic dermatology at the University of California, San Diego

Dr. Arisa E. Ortiz

As for laser-based approaches, melasma patients respond best to low energy devices such as the 1,927-nm fractional diode laser at a 3.75% density. “This also can increase the skin permeability of topicals, so when you’re combining it with hydroquinone it can be more effective,” she said.

In an observational study of 27 women with refractory melasma, with phototypes II-V, New York City–based dermatologist Arielle Kauvar, MD, combined microdermabrasion with the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. “The settings she used were very low fluence, so there was no clinical endpoint or no whitening,” said Dr. Ortiz, vice president of the American Society for Laser Medicine and Surgery (ASLMS). Specifically, Dr. Kauvar used the laser at 1.6-2 J/cm2 with a 5- or 6-mm spot size immediately following microdermabrasion every 4 weeks; Patients received an average of 2.6 treatments, and were assessed 3-12 months after the last treatment. Study participants were on a standard skin care regimen of a broad spectrum sunscreen, hydroquinone, and tretinoin or vitamin C.

Most of the patients showed at least 50% clearance of melasma 1 month after the first treatment, and 81% showed more than 75% clearance of melasma; remission lasted at least 6 months.

“I personally prefer to use picosecond over Q-switched lasers, because they deliver the energy faster, and you can use a 1,064-nm picosecond laser that is safe in all skin types,” Dr. Ortiz said. “There is minimal downtime, and it doesn’t require anesthesia. You have to consider these things when you’re treating melasma, because this usually requires monthly treatments. If you do something that requires a week of downtime every month, it’s not practical for patients.”

In a study published in 2021, Dr. Ortiz and Tanya Greywal, MD, used three passes of the 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser to treat melasma in 10 patients with skin types II-V. The device had a 650-microsecond pulse duration, a 6-mm spot size, and an energy mode of 11-14 J/cm2. The researchers observed a mean melasma improvement of 26%-50% as early as 3 weeks. “There was no downtime, and no anesthesia was required,” Dr. Ortiz said.

Researchers have discovered a vascular component to melasma, which may have treatment implications. Houston-based dermatologist Paul M. Friedman, MD, and his colleagues used spectrocolorimetry to detect an underlying prominent vascular component in a retrospective review of 11 patients with melasma, with skin types II-IV. They determined that melasma lesions exhibiting subtle or subclinical telangiectatic erythema may be improved by combining vascular-targeted laser therapy with fractional low-powered diode laser therapy.

“So, combining a vascular laser with a 1,927-nm fractional diode laser showed more improvement than with just the diode laser alone,” said Dr. Ortiz, who was not involved with the analysis.

To optimize results following the laser treatment of melasma, she uses one application of clobetasol immediately after the procedure. “This can help reduce swelling and inflammation to decrease the risk of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation,” she said. “You can also use a skin cooling system like Cryomodulation for controlled cooling.”

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