Obstetricians know that a cesarean delivery (CD) for a woman with a prolonged second stage and a fetal head deeply impacted in the pelvis is challenging. In this situation, extensions of the uterine incision commonly occur, resulting in prolonged operative time and increased blood loss. Even more harrowing is the inability to deliver the fetal head, necessitating emergency assistance from other clinicians. In this situation, interventions that may be helpful include:
- extend or T the uterine incision
- enlist the aid of a clinician to push up on the fetal head with a vaginal hand (FIGURE 1)
- reverse breech extraction (FIGURE 2), and
- vaginal insertion of a Fetal Pillow prior to starting the delivery.
Evidence from clinical trials indicates that reverse breech extraction or insertion of a Fetal Pillow result in the best clinical outcomes.
Reverse breech extraction vs the push technique
Although the data are limited, most studies report that compared with pushing up with a vaginal hand (as shown in Figure 1), the reverse breech extraction technique (as shown in Figure 2) is associated with a reduction in extensions of the uterine incision, reduced blood loss, and reduced operative time.1 In a randomized trial, 108 women with obstructed labor undergoing CD in the second stage were randomly assigned to reverse breech extraction or pushing up with a vaginal hand.2 Following the uterine incision, the reverse breech extraction technique is performed by immediately reaching into the upper uterus and grasping the lower portion of the fetal leg and applying gentle traction on the leg until the second leg appeared. The lower legs are then pulled out of the uterus. Standard breech delivery maneuvers are used to deliver the shoulders and head. In the trial, compared with the push technique, reverse breech extraction was associated with fewer extensions of the uterine incision (30% vs 11%; P<.05), less blood loss (899 mL vs 1,257 mL; P<.001), and shorter operative time (56 min vs 89 min, P<.001). Fetal injury was similar with the push and breech extraction techniques (6% and 7%).
In another randomized trial, 192 women undergoing CD for obstructed labor were randomly assigned to reverse breech extraction or pushing the head up with a hand in the vagina.3 Compared with the vaginal push technique, reverse breech extraction was associated with fewer extensions of the uterine incision (19% vs 48%; P = .003), fewer cases of wound infection (2% vs 13%; P = .007), and fewer blood transfusions (2 vs 11; P = .012).
Additional options and adjuvants for facilitating delivery of a fetal head deeply impacted in the pelvis include: using a Coyne spoon, using nitroglycerine or terbutaline to relax the myometrium, breaking the vaginal suction on the fetal head before attempting delivery, keeping the wrist of the delivering hand as straight as possible to reduce uterine incision extensions, and incising the ring (if a Bandl’s ring is detected).
Continue to: The Fetal Pillow...