Can it be repeated too often? No. Containing COVID-19 disease requires social distancing, fastidious hand hygiene, and using a mask that covers the mouth and nose.
Pregnant women should be advised to assiduously practice social distancing and to wear a face covering or mask in public. Hand hygiene should be emphasized. Pregnant women with children should be advised to not allow their children to play with non‒cohabiting children because children may be asymptomatic vectors for COVID-19.
Pregnant health care workers should stop face-to-face contact with patients after 36 weeks’ gestation to avoid a late pregnancy infection that might cause the mother to be separated from her newborn. Based on data currently available, pregnancy in the absence of another risk factor is not a major risk factor for developing severe COVID-19 disease.13
Hyperthermia is a common feature of COVID-19. Acetaminophen is recommended treatment to suppress pyrexia during pregnancy.
The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed prenatal care from a series of face-to-face encounters at a health care facility to telemedicine either by telephone or a videoconferencing portal. Many factors contributed to the rapid switch to telemedicine, including orders by governors to restrict unnecessary travel, patients’ fear of contracting COVID-19 at their clinicians’ offices, clinicians’ fear of contracting COVID-19 from patients, and insurers’ rapid implementation of policies to pay for telemedicine visits. Most prenatal visits can be provided through telemedicine as long as the patient has a home blood pressure cuff and can reliably use the instrument. In-person visits may be required for blood testing, ultrasound assessment, anti-Rh immunoglobulin administration, and group B streptococcal infection screening. One regimen is to limit in-person prenatal visits to encounters at 12, 20, 28, and 36 weeks’ gestation when blood testing and ultrasound examinations are needed. The postpartum visit also may be conducted using telemedicine.
Pregnant women with COVID-19 and pneumonia are reported to have high rates of preterm birth less than 37 weeks (41%) and preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (19%).14
The rate of vertical transmission from mother to fetus is probably very low (<1%).15 However, based on serological studies, an occasional newborn has been reported to have IgM and IgG antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein at birth.16,17
Pregnant women should be consistently and regularly screened for symptoms of an upper respiratory infection, including: fever, new cough, new runny nose or nasal congestion, new sore throat, shortness of breath, muscle aches, and anosmia. A report of any of these symptoms should result in nucleic acid testing of a nasal swab for SARS-CoV-2 of all pregnant women. Given limited testing resources, however, symptomatic pregnant women with the following characteristics should be prioritized for testing: if the woman is more than 36 weeks pregnant, intrapartum, or in the hospital after delivery. Ambulatory pregnant women with symptoms who do not need medical care should quarantine themselves at home, if possible, or at another secure location away from their families. In some regions, testing of ambulatory patients with upper respiratory symptoms is limited.
All women scheduled for induction or cesarean delivery (CD) and their support person should have a symptom screen 24 to 48 hours before arrival to the hospital and should be rescreened prior to entry to labor and delivery. In this situation if the pregnant woman screens positive, she should be tested for SARS-CoV-2, and if the test result is positive, the scheduled induction and CD should be rescheduled, if possible. All hospitalized women and their support persons should be screened for symptoms daily. If the pregnant woman screens positive she should have a nucleic acid test for SARS-CoV-2. If the support person screens positive, he or she should be sent home.
Systemic glucocorticoids may worsen the course of COVID-19. For pregnant women with COVID-19 disease, betamethasone administration should be limited to women at high risk for preterm delivery within 7 days and only given to women between 23 weeks to 33 weeks 6 days of gestation. Women at risk for preterm delivery at 34 weeks to 36 weeks and 6 days of gestation should not be given betamethasone.
If cervical ripening is required, outpatient regimens should be prioritized.
One support person plays an important role in optimal labor outcome and should be permitted at the hospital. All support persons should wear a surgical or procedure mask.
Nitrous oxide for labor anesthesia should not be used during the pandemic because it might cause aerosolization of respiratory secretions, endangering health care workers. Neuraxial anesthesia is an optimal approach to labor anesthesia.
Labor management and timing of delivery does not need to be altered during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, pregnant women with moderate or severe COVID-19 disease who are not improving may have a modest improvement in respiratory function if they are delivered preterm.
At the beginning of the COVID pandemic, the CDC recommended separation of a COVID-positive mother and her newborn until the mother’s respiratory symptoms resolved. However, the CDC now recommends that, for a COVID-positive mother, joint decision-making should be used to decide whether to support the baby rooming-in with the mother or to practice separation of mother and baby at birth to reduce the risk for postnatal infection from mother to newborn. There is no evidence that breast milk contains virus that can cause an infection. One option is for the mother who recently tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 to provide newborn nutrition with expressed breast milk.
Pregnant women with COVID-19 may be at increased risk for venous thromboembolism. Some experts recommend that hospitalized pregnant women and postpartum women with COVID-19 receive thromboembolism prophylaxis. The Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention described a classification system for COVID-19 disease, including 3 categories18:
- mild: no dyspnea, no pneumonia, or mild pneumonia
- severe: dyspnea, respiratory frequency ≥ 30 breaths per minute, blood oxygen saturation ≤ 93%, lung infiltrates > 50% within 48 hours of onset of symptoms
- critical: respiratory failure, septic shock, or multiple organ dysfunction or failure.
Among 72,314 cases in China, 81% had mild disease, 14% had severe disease, and 5% had critical disease. In a report of 118 pregnant women in China, 92% of the women had mild disease; 8% had severe disease (hypoxemia), one of whom developed critical disease requiring mechanical ventilation.19 In this cohort, the most common presenting symptoms were fever (75%), cough (73%), chest tightness (18%), fatigue (17%), shortness of breath (7%), diarrhea (7%), and headache (6%). Lymphopenia was present in 44% of the women.
Severe and critical COVID-19 disease are associated with elevations in D-dimer, C-reactive protein, troponin, ferritin, and creatine phosphokinase levels. These markers return to the normal range with resolution of disease.
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