Consciously or unconsciously, clinicians may feel uncomfortable diverging from a schedule of visits that is firmly entrenched in obstetric practice. Continuing the status quo is easier than restructuring prenatal care practice. Ultimately, a paradigm shift may be required to broadly adopt a model of fewer prenatal visits for low-risk pregnancies.12 With these issues propelling the historic patterns of prenatal care, it is easy to see why we have not yet changed despite convincing reasons to do so.
In this article, we detail the reduced-visit prenatal care models developed at 3 institutions and how they incorporate use of today’s technology.
Approach #1: University of Utah Virtual Prenatal Care Program
The University of Utah Virtual Prenatal Care Program was conceived as a “baby step” toward developing a model of fewer total prenatal visits. Virtual visits were intended to reduce the number of prenatal face-to-face visits while maintaining the same total number of visits. Since large clinical trials had established the safety of reduced visits, the primary objectives were to retain patient satisfaction and to facilitate provider adoption.
Would women be satisfied with remote prenatal care? A prospective randomized controlled trial was designed in which 200 women were assigned to receive either a combination of telemedicine and 5 scheduled in-clinic prenatal visits (remote care group) or traditional in-clinic prenatal care (usual care group). Low-risk multigravida pregnant women who were between 6 0/7 and 16 0/7 weeks’ gestation were enrolled. The primary outcome was patient satisfaction.
The face-to-face visits were goal oriented, with scheduled physical examination, laboratory tests, or ultrasonography, and were conducted by the patient’s established obstetric provider (physician or nurse midwife) to maintain continuity of care. The remote care group self-collected measurements for weight, blood pressure, and fetal heart rate by handheld Doppler device prior to each telemedicine visit and entered the information into the electronic medical record. The purpose of the self-collected data was patient engagement and satisfaction, as well as increased provider comfort with the change in prenatal care schedule, rather than medical necessity.
The primary outcome of overall patient satisfaction with prenatal care was ascertained by questionnaire after delivery. The sample size calculation of 200 patients was based on noninferiority testing, and analysis was by intent-to-treat. The details of the trial are pending publication.
As expected, the remote care group had significantly fewer in-clinic prenatal care visits compared with the usual care group (7.2 vs 11.3 visits); the total number of prenatal visits was not different between groups. Overall satisfaction with prenatal care was very high in both the remote care and the usual care group (100% vs 97%).
The virtual prenatal care model for low-risk pregnancies, consisting of a novel remote monitoring strategy and a reduced number of in-clinic visits, was not associated with lower patient satisfaction compared with traditional care.
New care strategy gives patients a choice. The success of this clinical trial has led to its programmatic adoption at the University of Utah, and low-risk women currently are offered a choice between participating in the Virtual Prenatal Care Program or receiving traditional prenatal care. The University of Utah is moving on from the one-size-fits-all approach to adopt new strategies that provide personalized evidence-based prenatal care at the lowest cost, while retaining high patient satisfaction. Formal cost-effectiveness analyses are underway.
Continue to: Approach #2: Mayo Clinic OB Nest...