Clinical Review

Beyond enhanced recovery after surgery

Author and Disclosure Information

An expert explains the key elements required to develop an effective ERAS program and strategies to facilitate change in the face of resistance


 

References

Our specialty is focusing now more intently on perioperative optimization, commonly referred to as enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS), a concept championed first and most visibly by colorectal surgeons in the 1990s.1 Both academic and nonacademic practices are challenging long-held beliefs about perioperative management.

The 3 tenets of ERAS

In multiple surgical specialties, proper implementation of 3 tenets—early feeding, perioperative euvolemia, and multimodal pain control—reduces the length of hospital stay, improves patient satisfaction, reduces complications, lowers health care costs, and most importantly hastens patient recovery.

1 Early feeding

Just as athletes hydrate and carbohydrate load prior to a competition, patients benefit if fluids and calories are not withheld in anticipation of a physiologically stressful surgical procedure. Similarly, modest benefit is associated with carbohydrate loading as a liquid supplement 2 hours before surgery.2 The American Society of Anesthesiologists guidelines state that while solid foods should not be consumed after midnight before surgery, clear liquids safely may be withheld for only 2 hours prior to anesthesia induction, and systematic reviews have failed to show harm.3,4 All patients, including those undergoing colonic resections, are allowed to eat a general diet as tolerated the evening before surgery, supplemented with caloric-dense nutritional supplements.

2 Multimodal pain control

Postsurgical pain is a top patient concern. Pain control is critical for rapid recovery; it helps avoid upregulation of the sympathetic axis and permits ambulation and resumption of normal activities. Although opioids relieve pain, they should not be considered a primary pain control approach.

Responding to the opioid epidemic, in 2015 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identified opioid overdose prevention as one of the top 5 public health challenges; notably, approximately 6% of patients will experience new, persistent opioid use following surgery.5 Optimal pain management therefore should provide effective pain relief while minimizing opioid use.

Preemptive oral acetaminophen, gabapentin, and celecoxib should be used routinely prior to incision; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be scheduled postoperatively. Even after a complex cytoreductive laparotomy, pain may be controlled with oral rather than intravenous (IV) medications in most patients, with opioid requirements averaging just 2 to 4 tablets of oxycodone in the first 48 hours after surgery, in our experience. The most critical need for pain medications occurs in the first 48 hours after surgery, which highlights the importance of local or regional analgesia. In one investigation, implementation of multimodal pain management that included incisional injection of liposomal bupivacaine reduced patient-controlled analgesia use to less than 5% after laparotomy.6 The need for opioids more than a week postoperatively is uncommon even after a laparotomy.

3 Perioperative euvolemia

Maintaining euvolemia is a central and underrecognized tenet of enhanced recovery pathways, and it facilitates the other 2 tenets of early feeding and optimal pain control. Overhydrated patients have more pain and prolonged recovery of bowel function. Unfortunately, euvolemia is the most difficult ERAS component to implement, requiring seamless communication between all members of the surgical team.

Continue to: Fluid therapy...

Pages

Next Article: