Looking at the risk for preterm birth, the researchers found that the aOR among women with type 2 diabetes was 2.12 (95% CI, 1.90-2.36), while there was no association between gestational diabetes and preterm birth.
The researchers also reported that for women with gestational diabetes or no diabetes, the odds of preterm birth increased slightly as maternal prepregnancy BMI increased.
“Maternal glucose metabolism during pregnancy differs from that in the non-pregnant state; insulin resistance is increased, directing fat as the mother’s energy source to ensure adequate carbohydrate supply for the growing fetus,” the researchers wrote. “This increase in insulin resistance is mediated by a number of factors, such as increased levels of progesterone, estrogen, and human placental lactogen.”
The authors noted that their data did not include information on congenital anomalies, maternal complications such as preeclampsia, and grade of diabetes control during pregnancy. In addition, the data on maternal BMI was derived from a single time point.
“These findings may have implications for counseling and managing pregnancies to prevent adverse birth outcomes,” they wrote.
The study and some authors were supported by the THL National Institute for Health and Welfare, the Swedish Research Council, Stockholm County Council, the China Scholarship Council, and the Swedish Brain Foundation.
SOURCE: Kong L et al. JAMA Pediatr. 2019 Feb 25. .