Preoperative multimodal analgesia
Multimodal analgesia has several benefits. Simultaneous effects can be generated on multiple pain-related neurotransmitters, and a synergistic effect (eg, of acetaminophen and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug [NSAID]) can improve pain management. In addition, small doses of multiple medications can be given, instead of a large dose of a single medication. Of course, this strategy must be modified in elderly and patients with impaired renal function, who are at high risk for polypharmacy.
Preoperative administration of 3 medications—a selective cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitor, acetaminophen, and a gabapentinoid—is increasingly accepted as part of multimodal analgesia. The selective COX-2 inhibitor targets inflammatory prostaglandins and has anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects; acetaminophen, an effective analgesic with an unclear mechanism of action, can reduce postoperative opioid consumption12 and works synergistically with NSAIDs13; and the gabapentinoid gabapentin has an analgesic effect likely contributing to decreased movement-related pain and subsequent improved functional recovery (data are mixed on whether continuing gabapentin after surgery prevents CPSP).14−16
Although serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are commonly used in outpatient management of chronic pelvic pain, data suggest that their role in perioperative pain management is evolving. As SNRIs may reduce central nervous system (CNS) sensitization,17 their analgesic effect is thought to result from increased descending inhibitory tone in the CNS, which makes this class of medication ideal for patients with chronic neuropathic pain.15
Limited data also suggest a role for SNRIs in decreasing immediate postoperative pain and CPSP in high-risk patients. Studies of duloxetine use in the immediate perioperative period have found reduced postoperative acute pain and opioid use.18,19 In addition, a short course of low-dose (37.5 mg) venlafaxine both before and after surgery has demonstrated a reduction in postoperative opioid use and a reduction in movement-related pain 6 months after surgery.20
The surgical and anesthesia teams share the goal of optimizing both pain control and postoperative recovery. Surgical team members, who want longer-acting anesthetics for infiltration of incision sites, discuss with the anesthesiologist the appropriateness of using peripheral nerve blocks or neuraxial anesthesia, given the patient’s history and planned procedure. Anesthesia team members can improve anesthesia and minimize intraoperative opioid use through several methods, including total intravenous anesthesia,21 dexamethasone,22 ketorolac,23
Incision sites should be infiltrated before and after surgery. Lidocaine traditionally is used for its rapid onset of action in reducing surgical site pain, but its short half-life may limit its applicability to postoperative pain. Recently, bupivacaine (half-life, 3.5 hours) and liposomal bupivacaine (24–34 hours) have gained more attention. Both of these medications appear to be as effective as lidocaine in reducing surgical site pain.24
Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks have been used as an adjunct in pain management during abdominopelvic surgery. Although initial data on postoperative pain and opioid use reductions with TAP blocks were inconclusive,25 more recent data showed a role for TAP blocks in a multimodal approach for reducing opioid use during laparoscopic and open surgery.26,27 Given the small number of studies on using liposomal bupivacaine for peripheral nerve blocks (eg, TAP blocks) in postoperative pain management, current data are inconclusive.28
The ERP approach calls for continuing multimodal analgesia after surgery—in most cases, scheduling early use of oral acetaminophen and ibuprofen, and providing short-acting, low-dose opioid analgesia as needed. All patients should be given a bowel regimen. Similar to undergoing prehabilitation for surgery, patients should prepare themselves for recovery. They should be encouraged to engage in early ambulation and oral intake and, when clinically appropriate, be given same-day discharge for minimally invasive surgical procedures.
Patients with chronic pain before surgery are at increased risk for suboptimal postoperative pain management, and those who are dependent on opioids require additional perioperative measures for adequate postoperative pain control. In these complicated cases, it is appropriate to enlist a pain specialist, potentially before surgery, to help plan perioperative and postoperative pain management.2 Postoperative pain management for opioid-dependent patients should include pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions, such as use of nonopioid medications (eg, gabapentin) and continuation of CBT. Patients with chronic pain should be closely followed up for assessment of postoperative pain control and recovery.
Surgical management is one aspect of the longer term multimodal pain management strategy for this patient. After preoperative pelvic floor physical therapy, she is receptive to starting a trial of an SNRI for her pain and mood symptoms. Both interventions allow for optimization of her preoperative physical and psychological status. Expectations are set that she will be discharged the day of surgery and that the surgery is but one component of her multimodal treatment plan. In addition, before surgery, she takes oral acetaminophen, gabapentin, and celecoxib—previously having had no contraindications to these medications. During surgery, bupivacaine is used for infiltration of all incision sites, and the anesthesia team administers ketamine and a TAP block. After surgery, the patient is prepared for same-day discharge and given the NSAIDs and acetaminophen she is scheduled to take over the next 72 hours. She is also given a limited prescription for oxycodone for breakthrough pain. An office visit 1 to 2 weeks after surgery is scheduled.
ERP strategies for surgical management of endometriosis have not only improved this patient’s postoperative recovery but also reduced her surgical stress response and subsequent transition to chronic postoperative pain. Many of the strategies used in this case are applicable to patients without chronic pain.
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