From the Journals

Can we eradicate malaria by 2050?


 

FROM THE LANCET

A new report by members of the Lancet Commission on Malaria Eradication has called for ending malaria in Africa within a generation, specifically aiming at the year 2050.

This image shows a malaria-infected red blood cell. Courtesy NIAID

This image shows a malaria-infected red blood cell.

The Lancet Commission on Malaria Eradication is a joint endeavor between The Lancet and the University of California, San Francisco, and was convened in 2017 to consider the feasibility and affordability of malaria eradication, as well as to identify priority actions for the achievement of the goal. Eradication was considered “a necessary one given the never-ending struggle against drug and insecticide resistance and the social and economic costs associated with a failure to eradicate.”

Between 2000 and 2017, the worldwide annual incidence of malaria declined by 36%, and the annual death rate declined by 60%, according to the report. In 2007, Bill and Melinda Gates proposed that controlling malaria was not enough and complete eradication was the only scientifically and ethically defensible objective. This goal was adopted by the World Health Organization and other interested parties, and by 2015, global strategies and a potential timeline for eradication were developed.

“Global progress has stalled since 2015 and the malaria community is now at a critical moment, faced with a decision to either temper its ambitions as it did in 1969 or recommit to an eradication goal,” according to the report.

In the report, the authors used new modeling analysis to estimate plausible scenarios for the distribution and intensity of malaria in 2030 and 2050. Socioeconomic and environmental trends, together with enhanced access to high-quality diagnosis, treatment, and vector control, could lead to a “world largely free of malaria” by 2050, but with pockets of low-level transmission persisting across a belt of Africa.

Current statistics lend weight to the promise of eventual eradication, according to the report.

Between 2000 and 2017, 20 countries – constituting about one-fifth of the 106 malaria-endemic countries in 2000 – eliminated malaria transmission within their borders, reporting zero indigenous malaria cases for at least 1 year. However, this was counterbalanced by the fact that between 2015 and 2017, 55 countries had an increase in cases, and 38 countries had an increase in deaths.

“The good news is that 38 countries had incidences of fewer than ten cases per 1,000 population in 2017, with 25 countries reporting fewer than one case per 1,000 population. The same 38 countries reported just 5% of total malaria deaths. Nearly all of these low-burden countries are actively working towards national and regional elimination goals of 2030 or earlier,” according to the report.

The analysis undertaken for the report consisted of the following four steps:

1. Development of a machine-learning model to capture associations between malaria endemicity data and a wide range of socioeconomic and environmental geospatial covariates.

2. Mapping of covariate estimates to the years 2030 and 2050 on the basis of projected global trends.

3. Application of the associations learned in the first step to projected covariates generated in the second step to estimate the possible future global landscape of malaria endemicity.

4. Use of a mathematical transmission model to explore the potential effect of differing levels of malaria interventions.

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