Studies Mixed on Second Cancers After Lenalidomide



The incidence rate of second primary malignancy was similar to that of all primary cancers reported among people 65 and older in the U.S. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data set spanning 2003-2007, they noted.

"Routine screening and prevention measures should continue as medically indicated for all patients, including examination for skin cancers, and as survival in patients with multiple myeloma continues to improve, so will our understanding of their risk of development of second primary malignancies," she said.

Relapsed/Refractory Disease

The third trial looked at the risk of new primary cancers in patients receiving lenalidomide and dexamethasone for relapsed/refractory disease.

Dr. Meletios Dimopoulos of the University of Athens and colleagues in the international MM-009/010 trials performed a pooled analysis comparing the incidence of second primary cancers in 704 patients who received dexamethasone with either lenalidomide or placebo, and compared them with standard incidence rates.

They found that there were no differences in incidence rates of invasive second primary malignancies between patients in the lenalidomide plus dexamethasone arm or dexamethasone-only arms, and that the incidence rates of second primary cancers in general were low and similar to the background rate among people of similar age in the general population.

Additionally, patients who received lenalidomide and dexamethasone had significantly better overall survival (median, 38 months) despite the fact that about half of all patients in the placebo/dexamathesaone arm (median, 31.6 months) were crossed over to lenalidomide-based therapy (P = .045).

"The overall benefit-risk ratio of the use of lenalidomide in the relapsed/refractory setting remains strongly positive," said the presenter of the abstract, Dr. Ruben Niesvizky of Cornell University.

Lenalidomide is not approved as first-line therapy in the United States. Dr. Palumbo’s study was supported by the Fondazione Neoplasie Sangue Onlus. Dr. Rossi’s and Dr. Dimopoulos’s studies were funded by Celgene. Dr. Palumbo has received honoraria and served as a consultant to Celgene and other companies. Dr. Rossi said she had no relevant financial relationships to disclose. Dr. Dimopoulos disclosed receiving honoraria from Celgene. Dr. Niesvizky said he had received honoraria and research funding from Celgene; he also served in a consulting/advisory role for Celgene and other companies.

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