HOUSTON – A treosulfan-based conditioning regimen could become standard prior to allogeneic transplant in elderly or comorbid patients with acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes, according to the lead investigator in a phase 3 trial.
The treosulfan/fludarabine myeloablative conditioning regimen had noninferior event-free survival, compared with a reduced-intensity busulfan-based regimen in the large, randomized trial that included elderly patients and those with multiple comorbidities, said researcher Dietrich Wilhelm Beelen, MD, PhD.
The experimental regimen was superior to busulfan in overall survival, nonrelapse mortality, and complete donor chimerism in the trial, added Dr. Beelen, who is with the department of bone marrow transplantation at the West German Cancer Center, University Hospital of Essen, Germany.
“The study results point to a potential benefit of the treosulfan/fludarabine regimen, while the early safety profile, engraftment kinetics, acute or chronic graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD), and the relapse risk of both regimens appear comparable,” Dr. Beelen said at the Transplantation & Cellular Therapy Meetings.
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is challenging in elderly and comorbid patients, who have an increased risk of nonrelapse mortality with standard myeloablative regimens, according to Dr. Beelen, who presented results on behalf of investigators from the international MC-FludT.14/L Study Group.