ORLANDO – Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who are members of an ethnic or racial minority do not have worse outcomes than whites when they receive appropriate treatment and institutional support, a study on disparities in cancer care shows.
Although previous studies have shown that minorities with DLBCL have worse outcomes than do whites, results of a study comparing outcomes from 155 patients of white heritage with those of 41 patients from black, Hispanic, or other minority backgrounds found no significant differences in either progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival in 2 years over follow-up, reported, from the Levine Cancer Institute, Atrium Health, in Charlotte, N.C.
He attributes the results to his center’s robust nurse navigation program, equal access among all patients – regardless of ability to pay – to standard treatments, and to the availability of clinical trial participation and stem cell transplantation.
“I think a key message is that if you are able to offer the same treatment and clinical trials to people irrespective of their race or socioeconomic status and can provide support, you can get equal outcomes as long as the biology is the same in both groups,” he said at a briefing prior to presentation of data in an oral abstract session at the annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology.
Dr. Ghosh pointed to four separate studies that showed that minority populations with DLBCL have worse outcomes than did whites, and noted that both uninsured and Medicaid-insured patients have also been shown to have poorer results, suggesting a role of socioeconomic factors in determining who gets optimum care and who does not.
The investigators compared PFS and OS among white and nonwhite patients with DLBCL treated in their institution, which has a safety-net cancer center. They also looked at the frequencies of clinical trial participation and stem cell transplantation between the groups.
The study included all patients with de novo DLBCL who presented to their center during January 2016–January 2019. They used patient-reported descriptors of race/ethnicity to create one of two cohorts: either self-identified whites (155 patients) or nonwhites (41), a group that included black patients, Hispanic patients, Asian Americans, and Native Americans.
The authors collected data on demographics, disease characteristics (including revised International Prognosticand double-hit status), insurance data, treatment, trial enrollment, progression, and death.
They found that nonwhites were significantly younger at diagnosis (median 56 vs. 64 years; P = .007), with an even distribution between the sexes in each group.
Two-thirds of both white and nonwhite patients had government insurance (Medicare or Medicaid). Of the remaining patients, 33% of white had private insurance, compared with 27% of nonwhites. No whites were uninsured, but 3 of the 41 nonwhites (7%) had no insurance.
Of the 155 white patients, 121 (86%) received nurse navigation services, as did 33 of 41 (81%) of nonwhites. The services include lodging assistance for homeless patients, transportation services for patients without cars, and care coordination among primary care physicians, oncologists, and other specialists. The services are part of the center’s standard practice, with excess costs, if any, folded into the budget, Dr. Ghosh said.
Looking at disease characteristics and treatment, the investigators found that risk profiles were similar between the groups. A higher percentage of whites had double-hit lymphoma (11% vs. 7%), but this difference was not statistically significant.
The investigators also found that in their program race was not a barrier to optimum therapy, with 96% of whites and 98% of nonwhites receiving frontline therapy with an anthracycline and rituximab-based regimen, and 4% and 2%, respectively received a non–anthracycline based regimen.
In each group, 39% of patients had disease that either relapsed or was refractory to frontline therapy.
In all, 11% of whites and 12% of nonwhites enrolled in clinical trials, 11% and 19%, respectively, underwent stem cell transplantation.
For patients with relapsed/refractory disease, the 2-year PFS rates were 60% for whites, and 63% for nonwhites, and the 2-year OS rates were 74% and 81%, respectively.
Dr. Ghosh and colleagues concluded that “our safety net cancer center, with extensive nurse navigator support and access to standard treatments, stem cell transplants, and cutting-edge clinical trials may abrogate the inferior outcomes in minority populations that have been previously reported.”
The study was internally funded. Dr. Ghosh reported consulting fees, research funding, speakers bureau activity, and/or honoraria from multiple companies.
SOURCE: Hu B et al. ASH 2019. .