Applied Evidence

Hypertriglyceridemia: A strategic approach

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This review, and the at-a-glance tables that follow, detail indications and strategies for the treatment of adults with hypertriglyceridemia.

PRACTICE RECOMMENDATIONS

› Evaluate patients for hypertriglyceridemia when they have a comorbid condition (eg, type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypothyroidism, metabolic syndrome, alcoholism). B

› Do not require fasting status when evaluating triglycerides in a lipid panel. B

› Make therapeutic lifestyle changes first-line treatment for hypertriglyceridemia. C

› Prescribe fibrates for severe hypertriglyceridemia to reduce the risk and recurrence of pancreatitis. A

› Prescribe a statin and an omega-3 fatty acid (fish oil) to lower the triglyceride level and thus reduce resulting atherogenicity when the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is > 7.5%. B

Strength of recommendation (SOR)

A Good-quality patient-oriented evidence
B Inconsistent or limited-quality patient-oriented evidence
C Consensus, usual practice, opinion, disease-oriented evidence, case series


 

References

CASE 1

Tyler M, age 40, otherwise healthy, and with a body mass index (BMI) of 30, presents to your office for his annual physical examination. He does not have a history of alcohol or tobacco use.

Mr. M’s obesity raises concern about metabolic syndrome, which warrants evaluation for hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). You offer him lipid testing to estimate his risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD).

The only abnormal value on the lipid panel is a triglyceride (TG) level of 264 mg/dL (normal, < 175 mg/dL). Mr. M’s 10-yr ASCVD risk is determined to be < 5%.

What, if any, intervention would be triggered by the finding of moderate HTG?

Heart © ALICIA BUELOW

CASE 2

Alicia F, age 30, with a BMI of 28 and ASCVD risk < 7.5%, comes to the clinic for evaluation of anxiety and insomnia. She reports eating a high-carbohydrate diet and drinking 3 to 5 alcoholic beverages nightly to help her sleep.

Ms. F’s daily alcohol use prompts evaluation for HTG. Results show a TG level of 1300 mg/dL and a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level of 25 mg/dL (healthy HDL levels: adult females, ≥ 50 mg/dL; adult males, ≥ 40 mg/dL). Other test results are normal, except for elevated transaminase levels (just under twice normal).

What, if any, action would be prompted by the patient’s severe HTG and below-normal HDL level?

Continue to: How HTG is defined

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