Patients with a history of transplantation, cancer in remission, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) without AIDS, and cardiovascular disease have been safely treated with AIT with a < 1.5% incidence of serious adverse events.6,21,36 It is possible to give patients taking beta-blockers and/or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) AIT with appropriate consideration. Both classes of drugs can interfere with emergency treatment, so one should consider substitution with an agent from another class if possible during AIT.6,8,20,34 Patients taking ACEIs receiving VIT had substantially increased adverse reactions compared with other forms of AIT; thus, individual risks and benefits must be weighed carefully before initiating VIT.6,34
Studies evaluating the indications for AIT in oral allergy syndrome, food allergy, latex allergy, AD, and venom allergy are ongoing.2,7,10,26 Although the incidence of severe adverse allergy reactions during AIT is rare, there are investigations of using various immune-modifying agents to improve the safety and efficacy of AIT.37 Application of allergen preparation using skin patches, intralymphatic injections, and chemically modified allergens to make them less immunologically reactive are being researched to further improve safety profiles and make AIT less time consuming.38 In Europe and the United States, there is a call for more rigid studies using standardized SLIT preparations. This will allow for an increased number of AIT studies with decreased heterogeneity.
Dellyse Bright, MD, Carolinas Medical Center Family Medicine Residency Program, Atrium Health, 2001 Vail Avenue, Suite 400B, Charlotte, NC 28207; Dellyse.Bright@atriumhealth.org.