Early childhood caries (ECCs) are a preventable public health challenge. Breastfeeding may provide early protection from ECCs. In addition, oral hygiene that begins in infancy, regular dental care visits, and a healthy diet can minimize ECC risk.
In this article we review the critical role of the family physician (FP) in reducing ECCs by promoting breastfeeding and infant oral health and addressing dental health concerns.
How ECCs develop
ECCs represent decayed, missing, or filled areas in the primary dentition of the tooth surface. The bacteria that cause them (most often Streptococcus mutans1) strongly adhere to teeth and produce acids as waste products of fermentable carbohydrate metabolism that demineralize tooth enamel and progress into the dentin. Weakened enamel and dentin can result in cavitation (ie, a dental cavity). Left untreated, caries can extend to the pulp and destroy the entire tooth. ECCs are a risk factor not only for dental caries in primary teeth, but in permanent dentition as well.
ECCs are the most common chronic disease affecting young children.1 Dental disease may begin soon after tooth eruption with detrimental effects on oral development. Almost half of children have dental caries by 5 years of age.2
ECCs represent a complex and multifactorial disease that is impacted by biomedical factors and unmet social needs. Children who are most at risk include those with low socioeconomic status, a high-sugar diet, exposure to household smoke, and limited dental care access.3 In addition, women with low education, poor oral health, and/or a lack of fluoride exposure are more likely to have children with ECCs.3 This is partly because of vertical transmission of cariogenic bacteria from caregiver to child. Horizontal transmission in daycare settings can also occur. Paternal and child oral health have not been linked.
Support breastfeeding; keep oral microbiome changes in mind
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, a combination of breastfeeding and complementary foods until 12 months of age, and continued breastfeeding for as long as mutually desired by mother and baby.4 The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends continued breastfeeding until 2 years of age or beyond.5 In fact, the WHO global nutrition targets for 2025 include increasing the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life to at least 50%.6
In addition to maternal, financial, and societal benefits, human milk offers nutritional and other health-related advantages for children that optimize growth and development into adulthood.4 Breastfed infants may benefit from reduction in infections and diseases, including asthma, diabetes mellitus, childhood cancer, and obesity.7 Improved neurocognitive development, intelligence, and education attainment in adulthood have also been described.8 And the rich microbiome of human milk helps to establish oral and intestinal floras9 and may mediate protection from ECCs.3
Continue to: However, as a child's oral microbiome changes...