To apply the DSM-5 principles for postpartum depression to postpartum anxiety, a patient would need to 1) meet the diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder that 2) have their onset within a specified perinatal period. Variant presentations of anxiety in the postpartum period might include panic disorder and phobias, which could also interfere with a woman’s ability to care for her child.
The DSM-5 offers the following criteria for GAD12:
- excessive worry about a variety of topics
- worry that is experienced as hard to control
- worry associated with at least 3 physical or cognitive symptoms: edginess/restlessness, tiring easily, impaired concentration, irritability
- anxiety, worry, or associated symptoms that make it hard to carry out day-to-day activities and responsibilities
- symptoms that are unrelated to any other medical conditions and cannot be explained by the effect of substances including a prescription medication, alcohol, or recreational drugs
- symptoms that are not better explained by a different mental disorder.
Debilitating effects of postpartum anxiety
Many women experience some level of anxiety during pregnancy and early postpartum—anxiety that may range from normal and adaptive to debilitating.14 While the challenges of caring for a newborn are likely to bring some level of anxiety, these symptoms should be transient and not interfere with a woman’s capacity to care for her infant, herself, or her family.
Postpartum anxiety has been associated with a prior fear of giving birth, fear of death (of both mother and baby), lack of control, lack of self-confidence, and lack of confidence in the medical system.9 The experience of such ongoing disturbing thoughts or feelings of worry and tension that affect a woman’s ability to manage from day to day should indicate an illness state that deserves medical attention.
Mothers with postpartum anxiety disorders report significantly less bonding with their infants than do mothers without anxiety.15 A recent narrative review describes numerous studies that illustrate the negative effects of postpartum anxiety on bonding, breastfeeding, infant temperament, early childhood development, and conduct disorders.16 Anxious women may be less likely to initiate breastfeeding, have more challenges with breastfeeding, and even have a different milk composition.17 Women with prenatal anxiety are also more likely to stop breastfeeding prematurely.18 Children of anxious mothers may be more likely to have a difficult temperament and to display more distress.19 There are small studies demonstrating deficits in early infant development and increases in conduct disorder in the male offspring of anxious women.20
Continue to: SCREENING FOR POSTPARTUM ANXIETY