Bleeding scores may be helpful in identifying hemophilia patients, regardless of whether or not clotting factor levels are known, results of a recent investigation suggest.
Both hemophilia A and B patients had significantly higher bleeding scores as assessed by the ISTH-BAT (International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis–Bleeding Assessment Tool), compared with control subjects, according to results of the study.
Moreover, hemophilia patients classified as severe had significantly higher ISTH-BAT scores compared with those classified as mild, reported by Munira Borhany, MD, of the National Institute of Blood Disease and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Karachi, Pakistan, and her colleagues.
“The ISTH-BAT can be easily used in the clinics by physicians and can help to identify those patients who should be further investigated,” Dr. Borhany and her coauthors reported in the journal.
The ISTH-BAT, established to standardize the reporting of bleeding symptoms, scores symptoms from 0, which indicates absent or trivial, to 4, meaning a symptom that requires medical intervention. Total scores considered abnormal are 4 or greater in men, 6 and greater in women, and 3 and greater in children, according to previously published reports.
In the present cross-sectional study, Dr. Borhany and her colleagues evaluated bleeding scores for 115 adult and pediatric patients – 78 with hemophilia A and 37 with hemophilia B – who were treated in Pakistan between 2014 and 2016.
Bleeding scores were a mean of 13.5 and 13.2 for hemophilia A and B patients, respectively, and 0.8 for 100 healthy male controls also included in the study. Scores were significantly higher in hemophilia patients versus controls (P less than .001), but not different between hemophilia A and B patients, the investigators reported.
Further results suggested a correlation between factor levels and clinical presentation of bleeding symptoms, according to the investigators. Statistically significant differences in bleeding scores also were seen between patients with severe and mild disease, and between severe and moderate disease, but not between the mild and moderate groups, they added.
Most studies of bleeding questionnaires to date have been in patients with von Willebrand disease or platelet disorders, with very little data on hemophilia.
“Apart from one recent study using ISTH-BAT in hemophilia carriers as part of assessing quality of life, we are unaware of other studies examining this assessment tool in hemophilia,” the researchers wrote.
This study cohort was unique, according to the investigators, because it included a substantial number of adults who were new patients with bleeding symptoms who had no previous diagnosis of hemophilia. “This allowed assessing whether investigators may tend to apply a higher score when knowing very low factor levels in hemophilia patients,” they said.
In fact, there was no major difference in bleeding scores for those newly diagnosed patients versus already diagnosed patients.
Results of an ongoing study will determine whether the ISTH BAT bleeding score can predict risk of bleeding in hemophilia patients, according to Dr. Borhany and her coauthors.
They reported having no conflicts of interest.
SOURCE: Borhany M et al. . 2018 Aug;57(4):556-60.